Portable Water Filter, c.1914 Here we see a portable water filter, a device that played a major part in reducing the number of casualties from disease on the battlefields of the First World War. In most earlier wars disease had caused more casualties than the actual fighting, but that was no longer the case.
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Trade and industry were the backbone of England's economic strength under Henry VII. The most valuable commodity in the reign of Henry was woollen cloth that made up 90% of England's exports. Traditionally English wool was viewed as the best in Europe and when it was exported raw, the Crown put high duties on it to exploit the demand for it.
By not marrying, Elizabeth I threw into question her succession. Elizabeth was intelligent enough to realise that other nations had faced huge problems when there was a succession crisis or when there were even doubts as to who a monarch's true successor should be. This was an issue that undoubtedly caused concern in both the Privy Council and Parliament.
The execution of Mary, Queen of Scots was witnessed by numerous invited people even though it was done indoors at Fortheringhay Castle. The following report of Mary's execution was written by one of those witnesses for Elizabeth's ministers. There seems to be a general agreement that Mary died a brave death.
Sir Francis Drake achieved lasting fame as a result of his association with the victory against the Spanish Armada. He was a loyal subject of Elizabeth I and his place in British History is due to more than just his involvement in the Spanish Armada. Drake seemed to epitomise the glories of Tudor England.
Tudor manor houses were for the wealthy of Tudor England. Tudor manor houses could be extremely large, such as Hampton Court, or relatively small such as the Tudor section of Penshurst Place, Kent. Many Tudor manor houses originated in earlier periods of English history and were built on so that the finished building had a combination of building styles to it.
A Tudor Christmas was starting to resemble something we in the C21st might recognise even if there were some parts to a Christmas we would not! The first record of a turkey being brought to Europe was in 1519. It was to be many years before this bird had reason to fear the Festive season. For the rich, the traditional meat on Christmas Day remained swan, goose etc as in a Medieval Christmas feast.
The Millenary Petition was presented to James I by clergymen as he moved from Scotland to London in 1603. The Millenary Petition was so-called as 1000 clergymen were said to have signed it. At the death of Elizabeth in 1603, the Church of England still retained features that to some were too reminiscent of the church pre-Reformation.
James I had assumed that all religious issues had been solved by the Hampton Court Conference and that the Church would suitably advance in a modern state that would reflect well on his kingdom. However, the conference at Hampton Court threw up as many issues as it solved and the whole issue of conformity continued to dog James who found that the Puritans had many supporters in both Houses of Parliament.
When Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558, she inherited a difficult financial situation and a debt of £227,000. Over £100,000 of this was owed to the Antwerp Exchange who charged an interest rate of 14%. Throughout her reign, Elizabeth was engaged in expensive financial issues, especially foreign policy.
Everard Digby was one of the conspirators in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot - the attempt by Catholics to kill James I and as many members of Parliament as was possible. Everard Digby was caught and executed. The exact date of Everard Digby's birth is not known. It many well have been either 1576 or 1578. His family may have been Catholics but they led a very low-key life and did not attract the hostility that the Catesby and Wright families did.
When James I travelled to London in 1603 he brought with him his favourites from Scotland. James had led a relatively dangerous and lonely life in Scotland so it was only natural that he should bring with him those favourites he trusted, as he would have known no one in London. While it would have been natural for James to bring with him his favourites, these men were to play a major part in alienating James from Parliament and the people.
John Wright, along with his brother Christopher, was a conspirator in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot - an attempt to kill James I and as many members of Parliament as was possible. Unlike the conspirators who were caught, with the exception of Francis Tresham, John Wright escaped the butchery of being hung, drawn and quartered.
John Gerard was a key religious figure in late Elizabethan and Stuart England. John Gerard was very much known to the Gunpowder conspirators of 1605 and it was Gerard who blessed the original group of conspirators at a house he rented in London. John Gerard was born on October 4 th 1564. He was the second son of Sir Thomas Gerard who was imprisoned in 1569 in the Tower of London for planning to free Mary, Queen of Scots who was in prison herself in England.
A bill, act or writ of attainder was a piece of legislation that declared a person or persons guilty of a crime. A bill of attainder allowed for the guilty party to be punished without a trial. A bill of attainder was part of English common law. Whereas Habeus Corpus guaranteed a fair trial by jury, a bill of attainder bypassed this.
The Battle of Marston Moor (July 2 nd 1644), along with the battles fought at Edgehill and Naseby, was one of the major battles of the English Civil War. As with the Battle of Naseby, the defeat inflicted on the Royalists at Marston Moor was a heavy blow and any power that they might have had in the north was ended.
George Villiers, Earl of Buckingham, became the favourite of James I after they first met in 1614. Villiers succeeded Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, as the king's favourite after Carr's fall from grace after the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury. Villiers was born on August 28 th 1592 at Brooksby in Leicestershire.
The New Model Army was created in February 1645 by Parliament as it felt that a professional army would be more successful against the king's army. It was a military unit that was to transform the English Civil War. The Battle of Marston Moor, had been a major victory for Parliament but not totally decisive in the sense that Charles could recover from it.
Charles I Oliver Cromwell The English Civil War has many causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons. Few people could have predicted that the civil war, that started in 1642, would have ended with the public execution of Charles. His most famous opponent in this war was Oliver Cromwell - one of the men who signed the death warrant of Charles.
Robert Devereux, 3 rd Earl of Essex, was a leading Parliamentarian military commander during the English Civil War. Essex was the son of Elizabeth I's favourite, the second Earl of Essex. Essex was born in 1591 into a life of privilege. He was a serious and solemn child who married when he was fourteen to Frances Howard.
The Declaration of Breda was produced in 1660 and paved the way for the restoration of monarchy in Britain. Charles had cleverly moved to the staunchly Protestant Netherlands where the declaration was made at Breda. The document was enough to convince General George Monck to support the return of Charles in what was to become the Restoration Settlement.