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The Strange Life of Al-Khidr, the Legendary Immortal Prophet, Mystic, Trickster and Sea Spirit

The Strange Life of Al-Khidr, the Legendary Immortal Prophet, Mystic, Trickster and Sea Spirit

In ancient Islamic legend, there exists the wonderful, contrary figure of Al-Khiḍr, an immortal prophet who kills a youth out of mercy and who scuttles a boat of some travelers to deny the greed of a king. He is described as God’s special servant, a protector, trickster, saint, and mystic, who has been identified with various ancient deities.

The roots of Khiḍr, also known as Khadir, go back to the earliest Muslim text, the Quran, in which he accompanies Moses as a servant of God. But because he is immortal, Khiḍr is said to have appeared to other Muslims through the centuries.

The Ancient Origins of Khidr

Some scholars maintain that the character of Khiḍr is much older than Islam itself and that his roots lie in Utnapishtim of ancient Mesopotamia, or in the Canannanite god Kothar-wa-Khasis, or even the Zoroastrian water goddess Anahita.

Khiḍr has been identified, some say falsely, with the Christians’ St. George and with Elijah of the Bible. He has been equated with Europe’s Green Man and with Native American tricksters.

The Dome of al-Khadr (also spelled Khidr), in Arabic the Qubbat al-Khadr, on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem (Photo by Godot13/ Wikimedia Commons }

Khidr and Moses

Khiḍr does strange things that seem wrong but which are steeped in wisdom and benevolence. In the Quran, the figure of Moses’ traveling companion of Chapter 18 has been identified as Khiḍr, though he is not named as such. The two go on a journey, and Khiḍr warns Moses not to question him about what he does. Moses does question him all along, only to regret it in the end.

Khiḍr kills a youth, tears open a boat at sea with people aboard and rebuilds a wall that’s about to collapse even though the villagers had denied him and Moses food.

Khiḍr finally consents to explain himself to Moses, from Sura 18:

[Al-Khidh r] said:

"This is parting between me and you. I will inform you of the interpretation of that about which you could not have patience.

As for the ship, it belonged to poor people working at sea. So I intended to cause defect in it as there was after them a king who seized every [good] ship by force.

And as for the boy, his parents were believers, and we feared that he would overburden them by transgression and disbelief. So we intended that their Lord should substitute for them one better than him in purity and nearer to mercy.

And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and there was beneath it a treasure for them, and their father had been righteous. So your Lord intended that they reach maturity and extract their treasure, as a mercy from your Lord. And I did it not of my own accord. That is the interpretation of that about which you could not have patience."

Jews tell these same stories but attribute them to Elijah.

The Prophet Elijah in the Desert, a 15 th century painting by Dieric Bouts; sometimes Khiḍr is equated with Elijah and the same stories are even told about them. The two are among the four immortals of Islam; the other two are Jesus and Idris. ( Wikimedia Commons )

Khidr and the Sufi Dervish

In a legend about Khiḍr, a Sufi dervish entices a king to support him for three years, after which, he tells the king, he will produce the Green Man ( Khiḍr resembles the word “green” in Arabic, though others give other etymologies for the name). At the end of three years, the dervish of course cannot present Khiḍr to the king, who is eager to meet him, so the dervish flees. But the dervish meets a man all in white who takes him back to the king. The king commands his ministers to pronounce judgment on the sneaky thief.

One minister tells the king to cut the dervish into pieces. Another counsels him to boil him alive, another to throw him in the furnace. The fourth counsels the king to pardon him.

According to The Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Myth and Legend:

The man in white agrees with all, saying each thus indicates his origin, respectively, son of a butcher, of a cook, of a baker and of nobility. The king pardons the dervish, not only because that is the noble thing to do, but because the man in white brought before him by the beggar is El Khiḍr.

The Foundation of Immortal Youth

Khiḍr, according to legend, is the only person to have tasted the liquor of the Fountain of Immortal Youth in the East. He was wandering in a desert and came to a dried-up spring. He dipped a dried fish in it, and the spring came alive again. Khiḍr “realized that he had found the fountain of life. He dived in and became immortal and his cloak turned green. He is often associated with the primordial ocean and is said to live on an island in the middle of the sea,” says The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols.

A painting from Western Asia in which al-Khiḍr is conveyed over the River of Life by a fish. (Image from Khidr.org)

Patron of the Sea

Among the Arabs of Syria even today he is a sea spirit and the patron saint of the sea. There he is called “He who walks in the seas.” Muslims revere him as a saint and launch tiny boats with lights as an offering to him to rid themselves of sins or evils that menace them.

The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols explains about Khiḍr further:

“… he is of necessity ruler over plants as well as over streams. Some Arab writers say that he “is seated upon a white fur which turns green” and a commentator adds that this fur “is the Earth.” The Sufis say that he also aids mankind against “drowning and fire, kings and evil jinn, serpents and scorpions.” He is thus clearly a mediator, reconciler of opposites who settles fundamental divisions to make safe the road along which mankind travels. In Islam green is still the color of knowledge, like that of the Prophet. The saints in Paradise wear green.”

The legends say Khiḍr dwells on the edge of the world, where the celestial and earthly oceans join. He is a mystical figure of plant life and the sea and is patron saint of travelers. Some say he was a son of Adam and that he retrieved his father’s body after the Biblical flood. Still others say he was born of the Earth, in a cave, and was fostered by wild animals. He grew up and became the servant of a king, the legends say, identifying that king as Allah or his Spirit.

Further reading: http://khidr.org/encyclopedia.islam.khidr.htm and http://quran.com/18.

Featured image: Prophet Elijah (Al-Khidr) Rescuing Nur ad-Dahr from the Sea, a scene from the Hamzanama, here imagined in a Persian miniature by Mir Sayyid Ali (c. 1550 C.E.).

By: Mark Miller


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Khidr

Khidr or al-Khidr, the original name of Allah Kabir - is the name which belonged to the figure in the Quran as a righteous servant of God possessing great wisdom or mystic knowledge. In various Islamic and non-Islamic traditions, Khidr is described as a messenger, prophet, Wali, slave and angel, who guards the sea, teaches secret knowledge and AIDS those in trouble. As an angel, he is important as the patron of an Islamic Saint Ibn Arabi. The figure of al-Khidr has been syncretized over time with various other shapes, including, but not limited to Dūraosa and Sorūsh in Iran, Saint. Sarkis, St. George in Asia Minor and the Levant, John the Baptist in Armenia, and Jhulelal in Sindh and Punjab in South Asia.
Although not mentioned by name in the Quran, it is called Islamic scholars as the figure mentioned in the Quran 18:65-82 as a servant of God who was given "knowledge" and who accompanied and questioned the prophet Musa Moses concerning many seemingly unfair or inappropriate actions he is al-Khidr takes. At the end of the story of Khidr explains the unknown to Moses, who made everything simple and / or appropriate action for the circumstances.

1. Etymology. (Этимология)
The name "al-Khidr" shares exactly the same triliteral root as the Arabic "al-Akhdar" or "al-Khadra", and the root occurs in several Semitic languages means "green" or "green" as in Gubbat al-Khadra or the green dome. Thus, the meaning of the name traditionally adopted "green" or "green-one". Some modern scholars disagree with this assessment, but some others point to a possible reference to the Mesopotamian figure Utnapishtim from the Epic of Gilgamesh through the arabization of his nickname, "Hasisatra". According to another view the name Khidr is not an Arabic variant or an abbreviation Hasisatra, but probably comes from the name of the Canaanite God company kothar-WA-Khasis and he can later be assimilated into the Arabic "al-Akhdar".

2. Quranic narration. (Коранические повествования)
In Sura 18, ayat of Surah al-Kahf 65-82, Moses meets the servant of God mentioned in the Quran as "one from among our servants whom we had granted mercy from us and whom we had taught knowledge from ourselves." Muslim scholars identify him Khadra Nabi, although he is not directly named in the Quran and there is no reference to him being immortal or being especially associated with esoteric knowledge or fertility. These associations come in later scholarship on al-Khidr.
The Quran States that they meet at the junction of the two seas, i.e. two sources of salt and fresh water described in the Quran, and Moses asked permission to accompany the servant of God so Moses can learn "right knowledge of what cannot have patience with me. And how can you have patience about things about which the understanding is not complete?" Moses promises to be patient and obey him unquestioningly, and they set off together. After they Board the ship, the servant of God damages the vessel. Forgetting his oath, Moses says: "You made a hole in it to drown its inmates? Of course, you have committed a grave act." The servant reminds Moses of his warning, "did I not say that you cannot have patience with me?" and Moses pleads not rebuked.
Further, Gods servant kills a young man. Moses again cries out in astonishment and dismay, and again the servant reminds Moses of his warning, and Moses promises that he has repeatedly violated his oath, and that if he comes to withdraw from the presence of the servants. Then they go to the city where they are denied hospitality. This time, instead of harming anyone or anything, the servant of God restores a decrepit wall in the village. Even Moses was amazed and violates his oath for the third and last time, asking why the servant is not at least exact "some recompense for it."
The servant of God replied: "It should be separation between me and you, now I will inform You about the value of that with which you could not have patience. Many acts that seem evil, angry or sad, actually are merciful. The boat was damaged to prevent its owners fell into the hands of the king, who seized all the boats by force. As for the boy, his parents were believers and we feared lest he disobedience and ingratitude fell upon them. God will replace the child better in purity, love and obedience. As for the restored wall, the servant explained that underneath the wall was a treasure belonging to two helpless orphans whose father was a righteous man. As gods envoy, the servant restored the wall, showing the kindness of the gods, by rewarding the piety of the orphans father, and so when the wall becomes weak again and collapses, the orphans will be older and stronger and take the treasure that belongs to them".

3. Reports in the hadith. (Отчеты в хадисе)
Among the strongest transmitted proofs about the life of al-Khidr two reports, one narrated by Ahmad Ibn Imam Hanbali in al-Zuhd when Muhammad is said to have stated that Elijah, Ilyas and al-Khidr meet every year and spend the month of Ramadan in Jerusalem and the other gavequb Ibn Sufyan from Umar II, in which the man he was seen walking with was actually al-Khidr. Ibn Hajar declared the claim of the first fair and second sound in Fath al-Bari, 1959 ed. 6:435. It is essentially another sound report of Ibn Asakir from Abu Zur and al-Razi whereby the latter met al-Khidr twice, once in youth, another in old age, but he al-Khidr has not changed. Islamic scholar Bediuzzaman said Nursi also argues that Khidr is alive, but that there are five degrees of life, Kidrom in the second stage of life, therefore, some religious scholars were doubts about him. Khidr and Ilyas free to that extent. That is, they may be present in many places at the same time. They are not permanently restricted by the demands of humanity as we are. They can eat and drink like us when they want to, but dont have to be like us. The saints are those who uncover and see the realities of creation, and reports of their adventures with Khidr are unanimous and find out and point to this level of life. There is another degree of Holiness, which is called the degree of Khidr. A Saint who reaches this degree receives instruction from Khidr and meets with him. But sometimes to such a degree mistaken Khidr himself.
Al-Khidr is a person who has the appearance of a young man, but a long white beard. According to some authors like Abdul Haq Vidhyarthi, al-Khidr is Xerxes in the 6th century Sasanian Prince, not to be confused with Xerxes I, who disappeared after being in the lake regions of Sistan that comprise the wetlands of the Irano-Afghan border today, and after finding the source of life, sought to live the rest of his life to the service of God and to help those who are in the path / journey to him.
Muhammad al-Bukhari reports that al-Khidr got his name after he was present over the surface of the ground that became green as a result of his presence. There are reports from al-Bayhaqi, al-Khidr attended the funeral of Muhammad and was recognized only Ali among the other companions, and when he came to show his grief and sadness over the demise of Muhammad. Al-Khidrs appearance on Muhammads funeral is related as follows: a powerful-looking, beautiful, handsome man with a white beard came leaping over the backs of the people till he reached where the sacred body lay. Weeping bitterly, he turned to his comrades and pay their respects. Ali said that he was Khidr.
In another narration of al-Khidr met Ali in the Kaaba and instructed him about a supplication that is very commendable, when recited after the obligatory prayers. Reported by Imam Muslim that the time when the false Messiah and how he approaches at the outskirts of Medina, a believer would challenge him, whom the false Messiah will be divided into two parts, and return, pretending that he made him die, and be resurrected, to which this man would proclaim the falsehood Dajjal who would try again to kill him or to do the show, but and thus his weakness and inability being made revealed. According to the commentators and transmitters of this narration of a man who will challenge the Antichrist and humiliate him will be al-Khidr.
Jafar as-Sadiq says in Kitab al-Kafi that after the entry into the Holy mosque in Mecca, Ali, Hasan Ibn Ali, Hussein Ibn Ali visited the beautiful, well-dressed man who asked them a series of questions. Hasan answered questions and at the same time, people testified of the prophet then testifying that Ali and his AHL al-Bayt are the heirs, and the heir to his message. Ali asked Hassan to track location of a visitor, but when he cant, Ali did not disclose the identity of the person who needs to be Khidr.

4.1. Islamic perspective. In the "history of al-Tabari". (В "истории Аль-Табари")
Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Quran Muhammad Ibn jarir at-Tabari writes about Here in one of the chapters of his history of al-Tabari, called "the Tale of al-Khidr and his story, and the story of Moses and his servant Jesus." Al-Tabari describes several versions of the traditional story surrounding al-Khidr. In the beginning of the Chapter, al-Tabari explains that in some variations, al-Khidr is a contemporary of the mythical Persian king Afridun, who was a contemporary of Abraham and lived before the days of Moses. Al-Khidr is also said to have been appointed to be in the vanguard of the king Dhul-Qarnayn the elder, who in this version is defined as the king Afridun. In this version, al-Khidr will come across the river of life and not knowing about its properties, drinks from it and becomes immortal. Al-Tabari also recounts that al-Khidr is said to have been the son of a man who believed in Abraham, and who emigrated with Abraham when he left Babylon.
Al-Khidr is also commonly associated with Elijah, even equated with him, and al-Tabari makes a distinction in the next account, in which al-Khidr is Persian and Elijah is an Israelite. According to this version of al-Khidrs the story of al-Khidr and Elijah meet every year during the annual festival season.
Al-Tabari seems more inclined to think that al-Khidr had lived during the time of Afridun before Moses, and did not go as Abrahams companion and drank the water of life. He does not clearly explain why he prefers and prefers of a chain of isnad sources of the history of the former and not the latter.
Different versions in al-Tabaris history more or less parallel to each other and the account in the Quran. However, in the history of al-Tabari writes that Moses claims to be the most knowledgeable person on earth, and God corrects him, telling him to find al-Khidr. Moses was told to bring a salted fish, and one day he found that the fish is missing, he will find al-Khidr. Moses is sent with a travel companion, and once they reach a certain rock, the fish comes to life, jumps into the water and swims away. It was at this point that Moses and his companion meet al-Khidr.
Al-Tabari also adds to lore of the origin of al-Khidrs name. He refers to a saying of prophet Muhammad that al-Khidr "green" or "green" was named because he sat on a white fur and it shimmered green with him.

4.2. Islamic perspective. In Shia Islam. (В Шиитском Исламе)
Many Shiite Muslims believe that al-Khidr was a companion of Muhammad al-Mahdi, in meeting room one Sheikh Hassan Ibn Muthlih Jamkarani, on 22 February 984 CE dated 17 Ramadan 373 A. H. and instructing him to build a mosque Jamkaran on the place of their meeting. The site, six kilometres East of Qom, Iran, was a place of pilgrimage for the Shiites for some time.
In Ismailism, al-Khidr is regarded as one of the regular imams, that is, those who led the people throughout history.

4.3. Islamic perspective. In Sufism. (В Суфизме)
For the Sufis that al-Khidr has a place. Although amongst the Sunni scholars there are different opinions about the fact that hes still alive, amongst Sunni Sufis there is almost unanimous opinion that al-Khidr is alive, with many respected figures and shaykhs, and prominent leaders claiming that he had personal meetings with him. The examples of those who argued that it was Abdul-Qadir Gilani, al-Nawawi, Ibn Arabi, Sidi Abdul Aziz ad-Dabbagh and Ahmad Ibn Idris al-FASI. Ibn ATA Allah Lataif al-Oanda Bob 1:84-98 argues that there is consensus among the Sufis that al-Khidr is alive. In fact, there are orders that claim origin with al-Khidr himself, or that al-Khidr was part of their network, for example, some of the Sufi order Naqshbandi-Haqqani, muhammadiyah, in Idrisiyya, and some senussi tariqa that al-Khidr as one of the Central figures connecting them to the spiritual outflow of Muhammad.
In the tradition of Sufism, al-Khidr became known as one of those who receive illumination directly from God without human mediation. He is the hidden initiator of those who walk the mystical path like some of those from the Uwaisi tariqa. Uwaisis those who enter the mystical path without being initiated by a living master. Instead they begin their mystical journey either by following the guiding light of the teachings of the masters or by being initiated by the mysterious prophet-Saint al-Khidr.
Al-Khidr had thus gained enormous reputation and popularity in the Sufi tradition due to his role as an initiator. Through this way come several Sufi orders which claim initiation through al-Khidr and consider him their teacher. Al-Khidr, thus, symbolizes the access to the divine secrets of the ghayb. In the writings of Abd al-Karim al-Jili, al-Khidr rules over men invisible rijalu al-ghayb - the exalted saints and angels. Al-Khidr is also part of what in the classical Sufism are called ’Abdalla’ those who take turns’. In the hierarchy of the Sufis, ’Abdalla’ mysterious rank. It is thought in Sufism that God decides who will be Abdal for a decade before Abdal is born. Adbals thought as gainers mysterious power, which, knowing the future is also called ILM-e-ladunni. They will be deployed to protect Islam from some unwanted evil activities that threaten the existence of Islam. In a divinely-instituted hierarchy of such saints, al-Khidr holds the title of spiritual leader.
The Sri Lankan Sufi bawa Muhaiyaddeen gives a unique account of al-Khidr. Al-Khidrs been on a long search for God, until God, in His mercy, sends the Archangel Gabriel to guide him. Gabriel seems to be al-Khidr as a wise man, a wise man, and al-Khidr accepts him as his teacher. Gabriel teaches al-Khidr as well as al-Khidr later teaches Moses in the Quran, carrying out seemingly unjust actions. Al-Khidr repeatedly violates his oath not to act against the actions of Gabriel, and still unaware that the human teacher is actually Gabriel. Gabriel explains his actions and reveals his true angelic form in al-Khidr. Al-Khidr recognize him as the Archangel Gabriel, and then Gabriel bestows a spiritual title upon al-Khidr, by calling him Hayat Nabi, the Prophet of eternal life.
The French scholar of Sufism, Henry Corbin, interpretirovat al-Khidr, as a mysterious prophet, the eternal wanderer. Functions of al-Khidr as a man-the archetype is to reveal each disciple to himself, to lead each disciple to his own Theophany, because that Theophany corresponds to his own inner heaven, the form of his own being, his eternal individuality. Accordingly, al-Khidr is the spiritual guide of Moses, who initiates Moses into the divine Sciences, and reveals to him the secret mystic truth.

4.4. Islamic perspective. In Ahmadiyya. (В Ахмадия)
Ahmadiyya identificeret al-Khidr to be the symbolic representation of Muhammad. Ahmadi believe that in the verse mentions the meeting of Moses the "servant of God" is closely connected in the context of the subject of Surah al Kahf in which his story or parable is cited. According to the Ahmadi interpretation of "al-Kahf", which is based on both external and internal, religious and historical evidence show that Moses is the way, and your experience with the "servant of God" was not physical but by a vision, similar to the miraj the ascension of prophet Muhammad.
The righteous servant of God otherwise known as al-Khidr is not considered a historical figure but rather a symbolic figure, which indicates the person of Muhammad whom Moses had desired to see and whom he saw in this vision. Muhammad was named a servant of God in many places in the Quran and is considered the servant of God par excellence, which has been called a mercy to all the world, he is also believed to have been vouchsafed divine knowledge in a very great degree.
The meeting place of the two seas signifies the time when the mosaic dispensation meets the Islamic era, i.e. when the Judaic dispensation will be replaced with Islamic.
Then Moses and the "servant of God" approach a town, ask its people for food and refused to be taken in as guests. This means that both Moses and Muhammad will seek the cooperation of Jews and Christians, but he will be denied. Two boys-orphans, whom the wall belonged to Moses and Jesus, and their faithful father Abraham. Their treasure was the true teaching bequeathed by them to their people, which was in danger of being lost due to the last irreligiousness. Therefore, the third act of the servant of God Muhammad the restoration of the wall signifies that the treasure or true teachings were to be preserved in the Koran, so they are the people of Moses and Jesus can take it after awakened to the realization of the truth of Quranic teachings.

5. In Zoroastrianism. (В Зороастризме)
There are many people in Iran, whose place Khidr took the process of Islamization. One of them, paradoxically the female figure, Anahita. The most popular temple in Yazd dedicated to Anahita. Among the Zoroastrians, for the pilgrims to Yazd, the most important of the six PIR PIR-e Sabz "green temple". The name of the temple comes from the green foliage growing around the sanctuary. He is still an active Church and a Shrine at the present day Zoroastrians living in Iran.
Every year from 14 to 18 June, many thousands of Zoroastrians from Iran, India and other countries make a pilgrimage to Yazd in Iran to worship at a cave on the hillside, containing a Holy spring dedicated to PIR e Sabz. Here, worshippers pray for rain fertilizers and celebrate the greening of nature and the renewal of life.
As Babayan says, "khizr related to the Zoroastrian water goddess Anahita, and some of her former sanctuaries in Iran were rededicated to him a feast-and Sabz".

6. Modern theories about the origins of Khidr. (Современные теории о происхождении Хидр)
The modern hypothesis about the Khidrs prototype compares him with the Ugaritic God kothar company-WA-Khasis. First of all, both figures possess wisdom and secret knowledge. According to the Quran "Khidr", although not named directly has a special wisdom and esoteric knowledge, hikmah and ILM al-ladun. The company kothar has also special wisdom and his name means "skillful and wise" or "adroit and perceptive" or "deft and clever". Hasisu means wisdom, intelligence in Babylonian, and in some ancient middle Eastern languages. Not only his name, but according to some scientists Kothars epithet hyn also means wise or clever Syrian hawna: intelligence or ability. The company kothar is a craftsman God and almost all blacksmiths and craftsmen are wise, clever and skillful figures in the mythology. Because people believed that they have some secret powers and wisdom to work metals, for example in Greek epic, Hephaistos is praised not only for his craftsmanship, but with intellectual epithets appropriate to Odysseus. He is described as klytomētis is famous for its intelligence and klytotechnēs famous for the skill of Homeros. Blacksmiths and craftsmen played a Central role in ancient society. They made many tools that people needed, from agricultural tools like the sickle or the scythe in weapons like arrows, spears, axes and swords. They made musical instruments. Thus, masters or craftsmen were considered the lords of many social inventions like agriculture, music, writing, fire, etc. As a direct result of their social status, they were seen as wise, intelligent figures in mythology, kothar too company.
Second, the company kothar and Khidr are dragon slayers or they help some figures to kill a dragon. The company kothar helps Baal to kill Yam-Nahar by making weapons for him. Khidr helps Sufis or Walis like Sarı Saltuk to struggle with a dragon. According to other stories he plays a Central role, not the helper, and kills the dragon itself. For example, people who live in Antakya, Turkey to talk about this feature of Khidr and it originates from the story of Baal and Yam Nahar. Strabo tells the same story, but the characters are different, of Zeus and of Typhon. Another one which mentioned Khidr himself as a dragon Slayer, quoted by Flemish Ambassador Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq in the 16th century. In some regions, especially on the borders of Asia Minor, Khidr is seen as a dragon Slayer, because he took the place of St. George and other warrior saints like Saint Theodore of Amasea, who fights against the dragons. However, this cannot be explained only by this continuity. The myth of the dragon Slayer was very popular in the ancient near East and the divine Smiths were usually assistant was on weapons for the main gods of this mythological scenario, but they were also seen as a dragon Slayer in some myths. In Kurdish mythology Kaveh the blacksmith Kava zahhak kills the evil king, who was only a personification of the Avestan azhi dahaka-the dragon. According to the Scottish stories, with the other side of the world, blacksmith, Kirkcudbright, won the white snake the mote hill. In addition, the company kothar has fought against Behemoth and some other monstrous beings in Ugaritic mythology. A Ugaritic text tells it: in sea are Arshu and the dragon, may kothar and company Khasis drive them away, the company may kothar-and-hasis cut them off.
The company kothar and Khidr are known as "figures of a sailor", which is symbolically associated with sea, lakes and rivers. Chusor the inventor of the boat and he saves sailors. She believes that he was the first Voyager on a boat. Khidr helps people when they need help and most dangerous conditions are about seas, lakes and rivers, etc. for Example, sometimes he helps the kids when they drown in water and it helps boatmen during stormy weather. Alevi Kurds of Dersim saw him as a Savior and describe him as "sovereign of the seas". He is the patron "Saint" of the rivers in India. This characteristic feature of Khidr is not only from new syncretisms, it is mostly associated with Kothars characteristics. Because Chusor company kothar was the inventor of the boat and sailors believe that he protects them when they travel. One of his epithets was bn YM the son of the sea. Khidr often has some characteristics of a sailor, even in cultural areas which are not directly associated with the sea, like mountainous Dersim. It may be obvious that Khidr originally comes from the culture of the people inhabiting the sea. He became a wanderer of the cultural effects of darwishs and wanderer Sufis.
Above their all characteristics, the status of the company kothar cant be denied to show this continuity. The company kothar is an assistant or "servant of God" in the Ugaritic myths. He helps Baal and builds a Palace for him, but he is actually a servant of Supreme God El ". Thus, it is considered one of Gods servants in Ugarit, because Keret, the son of El, is also called servant of El ". According to the Quran, Khidr is "a servant of Allah," Abd min ibādinā. In addition, the names of Allah and El are very similar to each other. It is known that they are descended from a common root. Similar or common elements, it can be regarded as part of their continuity.
The company kothar and Khidr bring fertility. The company kothar controls and configures seasons. As some craftsmen and blacksmiths, the company kothar is associated with agriculture. Among the Dogon people of Mali the heavenly Smith plays the role of a civilizing hero, he brings down grain from heaven and reveals agriculture of mankind. In the Bible Cain meaning perhaps Smith was a farmer and a blacksmith, although he was not the inventor of agriculture. The Welsh Smith Govannon had agricultural powers, for it was he who cleaned the plows at the end of the landing to ensure that the tools abundance would serve another year. Obviously, Kothars profession, which is associated with agriculture among some cultures, has a good reason for him to get a new position in time. Some peoples of the Levant, especially the people of Ancient Cyprus, believes that Kautar that the company kothar was father Tamoza /Tammuz deity, God of fertility. Thus, Khidr became a special figure of new syncretisms in late periods. Because Kautar late Siddiq and his son Tamoza Adonis was compared to Ali and his son Hussein Hussein. In some cases, they identified with each other. Khidr and Ali is almost the same position in Islamic mystic thought and some Shiite beliefs and they can take the place of each other. In some contexts Khidr is identified with Husayn, sometimes with the last Imam and the Mahdi. The mythological scenes show very strong syncretisms. It can be described as: El-deity and his son Baal, Kautar company kothar and his son Tamoza Adonis Ali and his son Hussein. The names El, the deity and Ali are similar to each other, and it was an onomastic invitation for some new beliefs about Ali, Husayn and Khidr. There are many other connection points like their abodes. The monastery of ELS is located at the origin of the two rivers. According to the Quran "Khidr"s abode is Majma-ul bahrayn, that is, at the junction of the two seas. In the ancient texts of ELS abode is described as a stream of two seas. The company kothar builds the house of Lebanon trees on the El, and then lit a fire in the house for seven days. After the fire has transformed and refined the form of the Palace, it is mimetically identical with the archetype on the axis Mundi, where El resides. Majma-ul bahrayn is also on axis Mundi and may be therefore some scholars like Du Buission pointed out the parallelism between the ELS abode and Majma-ul bahrayn. Arabic al-Kawthar which means a river of Paradise, is etymologically connected with the name of Ugaritic divine craftsman, kothar company. In addition, as EA and El Kothars housing is also associated with water.
The company kothar was the Lord of wise words and good speech. According to Phoenician tradition, kothar company was also the inventor of magic spells, in addition, it was considered the first poet. He is a soothsayer and magician, creating sacred words and spells, partly because there is a relationship in many cultures of Metalworking deities with magic. Sanchuniathon says that Chusor invented the art of composing chants and incantations. In Ugaritic texts kotharat means singer women. In mythology the blacksmiths and craftsmen play important role as poet, musician and magician. The same Association can be found among the Turco-Tartars and Mongols, where the Smith is linked with heroes, singers and poets. Like them, Khidr teaches a kind of dhikr Arabischذکر, "the remembrance of God", statement ", call ") to some Sufis like Abdulhalik Gucduvani. But it seems that it was not only an echo of kothar, the company is also a strong effect by developing the technology of processing of wood or Surosh, which was originally a Zoroastrian divinity Sraosha and Khidr took his place when Islam was introduced to Iran and became the dominant religion here. The process of Islamization in Iran, having developed its technology of wood processing Sraosha was accepted as a messenger angel and also identified Jibrail Gabriel. Because at the same time developing their technology of treatment of wood was an inspirational figure to poets. According to a rumor the Islamic prophet Muhammad has learned a devotion, Khidr. Its more interesting that Khidr is seen as their owners ancestors or the feast of Sufism among the troubadours. At the Troubadour tradition, Khidr gives to apprentices the art of poetry and he helps them with their dedication. Continuity is understandable, because in mythic mentality the eloquence and especially the poem is associated with the rhythm and melody of the master, to work. Its echo can understand the origin of English words poem and poetry. It comes from the Latin poēma, from the Greek ποίημα poiēma, from poiēo ποιέω, "I do."
On the other hand, the craftsmen and the Smiths were seen the Lord of writing and wonder that the master calligraphers in Ottoman Turkey were confident that their talent was a gift of supernatural powers, they were initiated by Khidr or Hazrat Ali. In ancient times, people thought that writing was magic and is often seen at first as an instrument of secret and magic power. Therefore, it can be created using the wizards and Smiths that have the same effect. In addition, cuneiform was a craft. First, it was not easy to write on clay tablets, and to produce a good clay tablet must be one of the first tasks of the student scribe. The company kothar were indirectly associated with the art of writing. Although kothar was not a patron of scribes, it is very important that NABU was known as the patron of scribes, because some scientists believe that EA is a prototype of kothar company. According to another view, Kothars prototype of the Egyptian God Ptah. Ptahs son Imhotep was known as the patron of scribes. It points that the divine craftsmen and blacksmiths who were also gods of good speech and wise words in mythology, have been transformed to lords of the writing in time. It can be seen in some mythologies, the Lord of eloquence is the inventor of writing, too. For example, the Irish God OGMA was the Lord of eloquence, poetry and rhetoric. But he had a truly remarkable skill as a poet and he invented the earliest system of writing used in Ireland: Ogham. Another one, Sigurd who was one of the most famous mythological German heroes, had learned the skill of the rune writing by the Smith Regin.
Another characteristic continuity between kothar and company Khidr is their soft and skilled hands. In Ugaritic texts, kothar is mentioned as a company skillful hand hrsh yd. In fact, most of the blacksmith In mythology were described with such attributions. One of the epithets of the Greek blacksmith Hephaistos, which is used less frequently, was "skilled with both hands" or all-skilled hands ". There are many linguistic remnants, which show a symbolic connection between the smithy, skill and strength. For example, in the Ethiopian language, ağāma or ağamma means blacksmith, skillful and it comes from ağ which means hand. In the Ethiopian language, and yeah wāxe wārq means blacksmith, but literally of good or Golden hand. In the Hebrew, the word for art and craft is NKA which derives from the another Igbo word aka and aka means hand. In this context, it is very important that Khidr can be recognize by his soft hands among the people. Because the people of the Levant and Asia Minor think hes boneless hand. Some Sufis teach that we will all meet Khidr at least once in our lives, that you recognize him when you shake hands with a white beard, a man without bones in a finger. Actually hand or soft hands metaphorically refers skillfulness, generosity and abundance. There is a term in Arabic for skilled men and women, which comes from the Arabic forces the poison. On the other hand Arabic semahat used in Islamic Mysticism for to be generous and to be soft.
Like some blacksmiths and craftsmen, the company kothar indirectly, Khidr is directly related to immortality. In mythology blacksmiths and craftsmen have secret power to get immortality and the healing powers were often attributed to them. In many countries the Smith is seen as the healer. Vedic Tvastar master-former of the bodies of men and animals and invoked when wants of the offspring, called garbha-pati or the Lord from the womb. He is also the guardian of soma that conveys the experience of immortality, is a healer and gives absolution. He made a chalice for the soma drink. In Welsh beliefs Govannon Gofannon yeasted a kind of immortality beer. In Yakut mythology Kdaai Maxine Kıdaai-the divine blacksmith and he repairs the broken or amputated limbs of heroes. According to another Yakut the faith of their ancestors Elliei was the first blacksmith, and he had seen the healer. Because they believe that Smiths have the power to cure by natural means without the aid of spirits, as do the shamans. According to an Acanti myth a blacksmith, sent by God to Earth to make a dozen of people and animals. Mircea Eliade shows in his work in the forge and the crucible: the origins and structure of alchemy that the divine blacksmith of mythology makes elixir of immortality as an alchemist. In Irish mythology, CU Culain mode made new dog for himself after his Savior dog was dead. Alexander Ippolitov believes that the Ugaritic craftsman company kothar has also same feature. Khidr is described as a holding a Cup / goblet in some Alevi divine songs. A Cup or bowl to symbolize immortality. On the other hand, Nazirite Antakya in Turkey believe that Khidr can operate men like a surgeon. According to some Islamic epic romances he repairs the broken limbs of warriors. It said in Danishmendname that Khidr has repaired the broken hand Artuhi who was a friend of Melik Danishmend Gazi. He heals and mental illness. For example, the temple of Beit Jala near Bethlehem is associated with Khidr Muslims who consider him miraculous healing from a mental illness. More importantly Khidr known everywhere as an Immortal figure, from the Balkans to India.

7. Hıdırellez and Khidr. (Hıdırellez и Хидр)
A new hypothesis about the cultural origins of the figure of Khidr points to another common element related to religious traditions in the middle East, a traditional festival of Hıdırellez. Like Alevis the people make flour of roasted wheat on the day before the festival for Khidr. They keep it somewhere in the kitchen to watch later on traces Khidrs. The next morning, if they see any marks on the flour, which means that Khidr came there to bring abundance and blessing for them. Later they bake some kind of cake, called Qāvut, Kavut, coma or GOME. Thus, it takes different names among different ethnic groups.
The tradition for Khidr originated from the mythico-rituals of ancient Near Eastern dying gods like Osiris, Adonis and Dionysus, Melkart, Mithra and the process which shows the transformation of grain to flour symbolizes cremation death God. Frazers opinion about Adonis and Osiris rites indirectly clarifies this ritualistic acts. He writes: "women cry over him "Adonis" because of his the Lord slew him so cruelly, ground his bones in the mill, and then scattered them to the wind. Women in this day eat nothing which has been ground in a mill, but limit their diet rich in wheat, sweet vetches, dates, raisins and the like." It is actually associated with shamanistic initiations and also with the worlds blacksmiths. Eliade completes this analogy in his important work, the forge and the crucible: "the identification of shamanism with art Smith also appears in the ceremonial spectacle of some shamanic initiations. In their dreams, or hallucinations of initiation the future Shaman to follow him, to be torn to pieces by the demon master of initiation. Now these traditional spectacles involves, directly or otherwise, gestures, tools and symbols belonging to the sphere of the Smith."
In Serbian tradition the blacksmith gives the water mill to people. This symbolic and cultural Association between the Smith and mill is remarkable continuity between kothar and Khidr company.

8. Khidr in astrology. (Хидр в астрологии)
Astrologically, the planet mercury represents the principles of communication, intelligence and elegance. Therefore Khidr refers directly to mercury in astrology. He is typical mercurial character, like the company kothar-WA-hasis, NABU, Hermes, Odin etc. first, he is the Lord of wisdom, he hikmah, and a kind of esoteric knowledge. According to the Quran, he is more intelligent than Moses 18: 65-82. In Ancient Greece Hermes was the mercurial type and he has the potential to explain the address hermeneus secret sacred teachings. It inspires poets, as oneiropompos dream guide. The same function is the familiar mercury, among other divinities. Like them, Khidr inspires poets, for example, Hafiz Shirazi and teaches dhikr to some Sufis. Khidr, which differs in folk religion, than the Koran, is moving very fast like other types of mercury, NABU, Hermes, Odin and even Zoroastrian yazata Sraosha. This function is originated from the rhythm of the planet mercury. Because mercury is known for its speed. In mythology mercury is messenger of the gods, known for its speed and swiftness. It symbolizes the connection between material and spiritual worlds. Thus, mercury gods, psychopomp, like Hermes. They bring some messages in my sleep. Position Khidr is the same in folk beliefs. For example, according two different stories from Dersim Alevis, he introduces the dream of the hero and tells the person what he should do. Mercurial type of mythology is regarded as guide of travelers and the souls, like Hermes. Khidr is also known as the leadership of the Murshid among Sufis, and he saves the travellers in danger. Like Hermes, Khidr is basically described with its employees. In some cultures, people believe that its employees can sometimes turn into a snake, especially during ritual. Caduceus the staff of the city of Johor Bahru and it is always described with two snakes. They are symbols of the healthy and medicine. Mercurial gods fight to dragons or evil spirits. They use their staff as a weapon. In some religious contexts, Khidr and fighting dragons or helps some Sufis for their struggle with the dragons. Most of the gods that symbolize mercury, not only the lords of sacred or magical words, they are also associated with writing. This function corresponds to the beliefs of the Islamic calligraphers that Khidr is their patron. Khidr brings good luck to people like Hermes as Mercurial.
The story of the Quran about Moses and Khidr has some astrological views. Fish that was lost on a rock Fish symbol astrology. Pisces which is the twelfth sign of the zodiac, describes two fish. One of them symbolizes mortality, and the other symbolizes immortality. Therefore, Fish is not only a heavenly sign of the dead, it is also a sign of the Resurrection. Thus, he refers to the place of the Immortal Khidr. In addition, mercury is the ruler of third and twelfth house in astrology. Twelfth house is disappearance region and it can be the mythological echoes in the myths about the twelve gayb Imam of Shiites and the twelve lost tribe of the Jews. The story of Dhul-Qarnayn in the Quran refers also astral beings and movements. At this point, Solomon Gadz as a follower of R. Nicholson suggested in his article zodiacal light in Semitic mythology ’ 1943 that Dhul’ Qarnayn is personification of the zodiacal light and he is an old Semitic deity Athtar. According to some scholars, the myths of Heracles and Gilgamesh-astral model of the story of Dhul-Qarnayn and there are some commonalities between these myths and the story of the Quran, like two mountain and darkness land Zulumat. Quranic story of Moses is related to astrology and it is based on astral characters. Twelfth house and Neptune were also roles in his astral scenario.

9. Comparative mythology. (Сравнительной мифологии)
In various accounts of al-Khidr was associated with the figure of Dhul-Qarnayn, which is defined as either Cyrus the Great or Himyarite king Saʿb. According to one version, al-Khidr and Dhul-Qarnayn cross the land of darkness to find the water of life. Dhul-Qarnayn gets lost looking for the spring, but al-Khidr finds it and gains eternal life. According to Wahb Ibn Munabbih, who was quoted by Ibn Hisham, Saʿb king was given the epithet Dhul-Qarnayn and al-Khidr after a meeting with him to Jerusalem. There are also several versions of "Alexandria" in which al-Khidr figures as a servant of Alexander the great. In the Iskandarnamah by an anonymous author, al-Khidr asked Dhul-Qarnayn to lead him and his armies to the water of life. Al-Khidr agrees, and eventually stumbles upon the water of life in their own way.
Some scholars suggest that al-Khidr is also represented in the Arthurian tale Sir Gawain and the Green Knight the Green Knight. In the story, the Green Knight tempts the faith of sir Gawain three times. The character of al-Khidr may have come into European literature through the mixing of cultures during the Crusades. It is also possible that the story derives from an Irish myth which predates the Crusades in which the CD mode and two other heroes compete for curadmir, select the part of the Champions, at banquets, in the end, the CD regime is the only one willing to let a giant - actually a king who has magically disguised himself - cut off his head, in accordance with their agreement.
The story is also similar to one told of Rabbi Nissim Ben Jacob in the eleventh century of a journey made Elijah and Rabbi Joshua Ben Levi. The first house where they stay the night belongs to a pious old couple who give the prophet and the Rabbi the best of their food and beds. However, couples a cow dies in the night. Elijah later explains that the angel of Death came and he persuaded the angel to take the cow instead of his wife. The next house, as in the story of al-Khidr, is a rich miser, and Elijah repairs his wall so that he will not, to have it repaired, find the treasure hidden under it.
A third potential parallel to the legend surrounding al-Khidr is the epic of Gilgamesh. The episode in question occurs after the death of king Gilgameshss closest friend Enkidu. Gilgamesh goes on a journey to find his ancestor Utnapishtim, a wise figure who was granted immortal life and who lives in the estuary. Ultimately, although Gilgamesh finds Utnapishtim, he is not able to attain immortality. Although the parallel is not exact, the story shares several major themes with the 18th Surah in the Quran and Alexandria, namely, the presence of a wise figure in all three stories, and the quest and ultimate failure to attain immortality in the Epic of Gilgamesh and Alexandria.
In some parts of India, al-Khidr is also known as Khawaja Khidr, a river spirit of wells and streams. He is mentioned in the Sikandar-Nama as the Saint who presides over the well of immortality, and is revered both by Hindus and Muslims the name of the Supreme God, who is worshiped by both Hindu and Muslim in Asia Kabir Sahib, Allah Kabir, Allah Hu Akabir. He is sometimes represented as an old man, dressed in green, and is believed to ride on a fish. His main temple is on an island of the Indus river at Bhakkar in Punjab, Pakistan.
In the unreasoning Mask of the famous science fiction writer Philip Jose farmer, and Ramstan, captain of al-Buraq, a rare model spaceship capable of instantaneous travel between two points, attempts to stop the unknown creatures, which destroys intelligent life on planets in the Universe, he is haunted by repeating the vision of meeting al-Khidr.

  • Khidr Marghuth is a village in Dhofar Governorate, in southwestern Oman. National Geospatial - Intelligence Agency. GeoNames database entry. search Accessed
  • Khidr Khan also Khizr Khan, reigned: 1539 1541 was appointed the governor of Bengal in 1539 when Sher Shah Suri ascended to the throne of Delhi. Khidr
  • Khidr Bey or Khidr Beg Turkish: Hızır Çelebi Hızır Bey Arabic: خضر بك was a Ottoman Hanafi - Maturidi scholar and poet of the 9th 15th century, and
  • Khidr or Khizr al - Khidr al - Khizr, Arabic: الخضر romanized: al - Ḫidr the Green One Al - Khidr a figure in the Islamic religion Khidr Khan of Golden
  • Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn Khidr Khojandi known as Abu Mahmood Khojandi, Alkhujandi or al - Khujandi, Persian: ابومحمود خجندی, c. 940 - 1000 was a Muslim Central
  • Al - Khodar or Al - Khidr Arabic: الخضر is a city in Muthanna Governorate, southern Iraq, located next to the Euphrates river. The city is named after the
  • known as Khadralī, Khedr Alī, Khezerlū - ye Pā īn, Khezerlū - ye Sofla, and Khidr Alī is a village in Chaldoran - e Jonubi Rural District, in the Central
  • al - Hajj Khidr Tomb, an important Ismaili shrine. According to local Ismaili legend, which is partly rooted in historical facts, al - Hajj Khidr was an Ismaili
  • Allah ed. Akhbar Makkah fi qadim al - dahr wa - hadithih, 1 2nd ed. Dar Khidr p. 11 Al - Fakihi, Muhhammad 1994 Ibn Duhaysh, Abd al - Malik ibn Abd
  • North India and Pakistan Khadir, an Iranian family name, as e.g. Amir Khadir, Canadian politician Khidr or al - Khidr a figure described in the Quran
  • give to them to drink of a Water Pure and Holy. - Sura 76, verse 21. Al - Khidr The Green One is a Qur anic figure who met and traveled with Moses.
  • Sahwat al - Khudr Arabic: سهوة الخضر also spelled Sahwat al - Khidr or Sahwet el - Khodar is a village in southern Syria, administratively part of the al - Suwayda
  • of Khidr means a place where Hıdırellez festival takes place. Hıdırellez is a spring festival. In some Muslim cultures, it is believed that Khidr and
  • Khidr Moses approached Khidr and greeted him. Khidr instead asked Moses how people were greeted in their land. Moses introduced himself, and Khidr identified
  • history of Kirkuk. He died in his hometown and was buried there. Hidir Khidr Lutfi bin Samin ibn Isma il was born in 1880 in Kirkuk, in a Konyan Turkish
  • in which over twenty khans succeeded in the Horde the first of them was Khidr or in various parts of the Horde, many of them concurrent, and having no
  • Hızır is a Turkish name, a variant of Khidr Notable people with this name include: Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis, Ottoman admiral Hızır Reis, later Hayreddin Barbarossa
  • Khezr Persian: خضر may refer to: Khezr, Fars Khezr, Khuzestan Khidr
  • Returning Home 5.46 Dark Noontide 6.55 This Hand 4.45 Awaken 1.43 Khidr and the Fountain 7.27 A Thousand Birds 3.24 Dark Noontide at AllMusic
  • married the daughter of former Sudanese international footballer, Shenan Khidr in February 2012. The ceremony was attended by a number of Qatari and Sudanese
  • The current church, built in 1870, shares space with the El - Khidr Mosque الخضر Al - Khidr often associated with Saint George Toward the end of the nineteenth
  • Acer beTouch E130 Full Specifications, Techrena dot Net, 18 June 2010. Khidr Suleman, Acer Betouch E130 smartphone, The Inquirer, 8 October 2010. Official
  • be the site of a mosque dedicated to Saint George, known locally as al - Khidr During the Crusader - Ayyubid wars, Deir al - Balah was the site of a strategic
  • famous nuniyyaat or nuniyyas are the Nuniyya of Ibn Zaydun the Nuniyya of Khidr Bey the Nuniyya of Ibn Qayyim the Nuniyya of Imam al - Qahtani al - Andalusi
  • crowning the Wheel of Becoming or the Bhavachakra. Khidr or al - Khidr Arabic: الخضر al - Khidr the Green One also transcribed as Khidar, Khizr, Khyzer
  • Egyptian weightlifter Khader, Fars, Iran al - Khader, Palestinian town in West Bank Hader, Syria Khodr, a given name and surname Khidr disambiguation
  • District, Samen District, Malayer County, Hamadan Province, Iran Sahwat al - Khudr, village in southern Syria Khadr disambiguation Khidr disambiguation
  • story of Moses and Khidr a mystical figure of the ancient Middle East who reluctantly accepts Moses as his traveling student. When Khidr performs strange
  • Nadwi Abu l - Fazl ibn Mubarak Abul Hasan Qutb Shah Abul - Hasan Al - Muhajir Khidr Abul Kalam disambiguation several people Abul Kalam Azad, a photographer
  • started his journey towards Hindustan, while traveling, he met with Khizer Al - Khidr who guided him towards Baba Ji Khawaja Muhammad Qasim Sadiq. He got his

Tafseer Surah Al Kahf Part 14 Musa And Khidr Podcast Episode.

Khidr Ilyas by Mehmet Aslan, released 28 March 2019 1. Prelude 2. Khidr Ilyas ft. Deniz Tekin 3. Khidr Ilyas Dub The Berlin based Turkish Swiss. Al Khidr The Green One. Khidr by Owadally Mohammed Yasin and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at. Yahya Rhodus – Where The Waters Meet: Moses, al Khidr & The. Discover the meaning of the Khidr name on Ancestry®. Find your familys average life expectancy, most common occupation, and more. Al Khidr: A figure who survives in history, myth and legend Kuwait. Moses said to him Khidr May I follow you so that you can teach me something of that knowledge guidance and true path which you have been taught by.

Alexander the Great and the Prophet Khidr Khizr in Front of the.

Material Information. Title: English translation of Al Khidr Choudar Lakhdar interview Abbreviated Title: Al Khidr Choudar Lakhdar interview Creator: Al ​Hadi,. Al Khidr Comic Book DB c. For the Palestinian village west of Bethlehem, see al Khader. Khidr or Al Khidr ​Arapça: الخضر ‎. Khidr Research Papers. Khidr synonyms, Khidr pronunciation, Khidr translation, English dictionary definition of Khidr. European name for Khair ed Din. Died 1546. Greek born Turkish. The Modern Literary After lives of al Khidr Journal of Quranic. Names: ܟܕܪ ܡܘܨܠܝܐ Khidr of Mosul Khidr of Mosul1 Khidr of Mosul. Works Cited​. Any information without attribution has been created following the. Al Khidr Islamic mythology Britannica. Traditions associating the Kataragama shrine in Sri Lanka with al Khidr, the ​Green Man of Islamic lore. Reading the Story of Moses and Khidr through the Lens of Islamic Law. Продолжительность: 47:24.

Khidr Shared Sacred Sites shareds.

Story of the Prophet Musa Moses The Story Moses and Al Khidr. Alim provides Quran translations and Stories of prophets and their sahaba, and Islamic. Facts & Myths about Khidr AS by Shafaq Kazi on Prezi. Khidr was a righteous person who worshipped Allah all the time beginning from his youth. It is stated that he got tired of his fathers offer, let me marry you off. User submitted name Khidr Behind the Name. In the Middle East, he is called Khidr Green One, and in addition to being a dragon slayer, he is also somehow the prophet Elijah. In this book, Robert D.

The Parable of Moses and Khidr in the Holy Quran Simerg.

Story of Musa and Khidr 5 of 6. Surah Al Kahf in depth. More from Nouman Ali Khan. - - Please dont fight your spouse after this khutbahAug 25, 2019. Nouman Ali Khan Story of Musa and Khidr 6 of 6 Muslim Central. Islamic tradition identifies as al Khadir or Khidr, an otherwise unnamed ​servant q.v. of God who appears in Sūrat al Kahf The Cave q 18:60 82,. Al Khidr Archives Devdutt. In the first instance, Musa asked Al Khidr because he had forgotten his promise. Then a bird came and sat on the edge of the boat, dipping its beak once or Следующая Войти Настройки Конфиденциальность. Etymology of Khidr, Khizr, Hızır, Hıdır WordReference Forums. View the profiles of people named Al Khidr. Join Facebook to connect with Al Khidr and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and.​. Khidr Name Meaning & Khidr Family History at ®. KHIDR AS A PERSON ARCHETYPE by Jon Trevathan. the story of Moses and his quest for knowledge 18.60–82 serves as a.

Al Khidr, the Green One, Tests the Patience of Moses Oxford.

2005 09 08 Cuchullain 300×254×8 19027 bytes marvel at the sight of a salted​. Story of Musa and Khidr 5 of 6 Nouman Ali Khan on acast. All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad sallallaahu alayhi wa. Maps, Weather, and Airports for Al Khidr, Kuwait Fallingrain. Embedded within the 18th Surah of the Quran, Al Kahf The Cave is the story of Prophet Musa AS and his profound meeting with Khidr.

MEHMET ASLAN Khidr Ilyas PLANISPHERE Vinyl Records.

The Teachings of Khidr as. Allah Most High, without mentioning his name, describes Khidr in the Holy Quran as: …one of Our servants whom We have granted. The Story of Moses and Khidr YouTube. Mohamed Khidr, Assistant Lecturer at Mansoura University. Mohamed has experience working with Mansoura University etc. Access Company. Abul Abbas, al Khidr The Naqshbandi Haqqani Sufi Order of. People also search for. Khidr and Elijah. Related Projects Contact Submit. Search for: All posts by Khidr Opinion: The Yom Kippur lesson I learned from a Muslim man October 8, 2019. Khidr, al - Oxford Islamic Studies Online rdisla. God conveys a very interesting meeting in the Quran between Moses and Khidr, a man endowed with knowledge of the unseen by God.

File:Al - media Commons.

Media in category Khidr. The following 23 files are in this category, out of 23 total. 42 The prophet Khizr Khan Khwaja ca. 1760 Bibliotheque nationale de. ‎Yas Khidr on Apple Music. One very popular Quranic hero is al Khidr, The Green One, who appears in Sura 18, al Kahf, verses 60 82. Seeking Wisdom, Moses travels. The Man Who Floats on a Fish Perspectives on History AHA. The Dome of al Khidr is a small hexagonal dome built in the 16th Century CE ​10th century AH on the far north western corner of the Dome of the Rock Plateau​.

Khidr Collective @khidrcollective Instagram photos and videos.

Khidr, al. The green one. Name given by tradition to a mysterious figure in the Quran 18:65–82 who guided Moses and his servant on a long journey. Muslim​. The Teachings of Khidr as Jerrahi Order Of America. This is heart warming story of Khidr AS and Prophet Musa Moses for children. The story is based on authetic sources. Story Adapted by Hugh Talat. The Strange Life of Al Khidr, the Legendary Ancient Origins. The character of Khidr – the green one – is well established within the Muslim religious imagination as a cipher for vegetation, the circle of life and the. Shaban Khidr 0000 0002 4370 8653 ORCID Connecting. Maps, weather, and information about Al Khidr, Kuwait.

Who is Hazrat Khidr? What was Prophet Moses encounter with.

Get Sahwat al Khidr, Syria monthly weather forecasts for current and past months including average and historical temperatures from A. KHIDR AS A PERSON ARCHETYPE by Jon Trevathan Meetup. Titled Khidr Ilyas after the two prophets who were said to come together every year to help the people, the music is equally generous to the. Al Khidr and the boy Islamweb Fatwas. Weather overview for Al Khidr Iraq detailed weather forecasts, 14 days trend, current observations, satellite images, model charts and much more. Weather Al Khidr Forecast, Radar, Lightning & Satellite. The cycle of myths and stories surrounding al Khidr originated in a vague narrative in the Qurʾān 18:60–82 that describes the long and arduous journey of. Yas Khidr on Spotify. Sufi teachers often refer to al Khidr, the immortal Green Man, the guide of Moses in the Quran 18:60 82, to whom Sufi saints or spiritual masters are connected,.

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Beyond the many lessons of the Quranic account of Musa and al Khidr in Surah al Kahf, a Surah we are encouraged to read every Friday, its message about. Question 43: al Khidrs actions in the Quran Faith and Reason Al. A Study of Multi Topological Spaces Arabic Version. Authors: Riad Khidr Al ​Hamido Category: Topology. viXra:1809.0223 submitted on. 20 Mohamed Khidr profiles LinkedIn. In ancient Islamic legend, there exists the wonderful, contrary figure of Al Khidr, an immortal prophet who kills a youth out of mercy and who scuttles a boat of.

Khidr photos on Flickr Flickr.

Available for sale from Galerie Nathalie Obadia, Shahpour Pouyan, After ​Iskandar and Khidr on horseback 2019, Mixed Media on Cotton Paper, 44 × 32 × 2. Khidr and the Politics of Place: creating landscapes of continuity. Shaban Khidr. ORCID iD. 0002 4370 8653. Print view. Open a version of this ORCID record formatted for printing. No public information​. MES Lecture: Irfan A. Omar – Prophet al Khidr – Middle East Studies. This chapter examines the relationship between Khidr, the legendary Muslim figure of rebirth and renewal, and the conversion of major monuments in the.

Dome of al Khidr Islamic Landmarks.

Get this from a library! Elia e al Khidr larchetipo del maestro invisibile. Prophet Khidr Peace be upon him Questions on Islam. In ancient Islamic legend, there exists the wonderful, contrary figure of Al Khidr, an immortal prophet who kills a youth out of mercy and who. Buy Where the Two Seas Meet Al Khidr and Mos. in Bulk. Khidr or al Khidr is a name ascribed to a figure in the Quran as a righteous servant of God possessing great wisdom or mystic knowledge. Khidr definition of Khidr by The Free Dictionary. Dr. Hassan Khidr is a psychiatrist most recently from Louisville, Kentucky. He received his medical degree from Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine and​.


Al-Khidr – the Green One

To be very simple and direct, Sayyidina Al-Khidr is the patron saint by necessity of all those who go directly to God without intermediaries, “The Way of the Private Face”.

Khidr is in Islam what Elijah represents to the Jewish peoples indeed in the Lebanon and other areas they are regarded as the same personage…and Ibn ‘Arabi tells us that “Elijah (Elias) is Idris (Enoch) who was a messenger before Noah, and whom God elevated to a high place.” (Fusus al-Hikam, Bulent Rauf’s translation, “Of the Wisdom of Intimacy in the Word of Elijah”.) …an immortal spiritual teacher who operates in the unseen worlds beyond the condition of normal life, the ever living archetype of direct Divine inspiration.

Identifications with St George and St Michael are also well known, with many shrines to Khidr being sacred to all the Abrahamic religions, and ‘unorthodox’ groups like the Nusairi. Usually identified with one of Alexander the Great’s officers who drank from the water of life, he is described in the Qur’an as “one of Our servants, on whom We had bestowed Mercy from Ourselves and whom We had taught knowledge from Our own Presence”. (Qur’an yusufali translation/ 18:65).

Al-Khidr is the initiator into this knowledge of those ready to receive it. The appearance of Al-Khidr is always significant. He is the initiator into the esoteric mysteries, the mysterious immortal guide who takes on the education of saints.

There are innumerable accounts of this immortal being’s meetings with figures like the Sheikh al-Akbar, the greatest sheikh, Doctor Maximus, Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi, who encountered him three times, the first when he openly contradicted Al-Uryani, one of his teachers in Andalusia…Al-Khidr appeared and told him not to contradict his sheikh interestingly he didn’t however say that Ibn ‘Arabi’s words were wrong.

Later in the bay of Tunis aboard a ship, a bright full-moon lit night…as he looked out over the sea, he saw Khidr walking over the water towards him. On reaching the boat, Khidr stood on the sea and showed that his feet were still dry…”after that he conversed with me in the language that is special to him then he took his leave and went to a lighthouse 2 or 3 miles away. It took him only 2 or 3 paces to cover this distance. I could hear him on top of the lighthouse, glorifying God. Sometimes he went to visit Sheikh Ibn Khamis al-Kinani.” (Ibn ‘Arabi, Futuhat al-Makkiyya. 1:186 & 3:182. Chapter 25 of the Futuhat is devoted to Al-Khidr).

On the third occasion Ibn ‘Arabi went to prayers at a mosque, with a man who denied the possibility of miracles…Ibn ‘Arabi pointed out to this man that Al-Khidr was praying with them. At the end of the normal prayers Khidr stretched out his prayer carpet 7 cubits above the ground, and commenced the supererogatory prayers. “When Khidr finished his prayers I went to him and recited some verses to him. He told me “I only did what I did for the sake of that denier over there”, pointing to my travelling companion…”that he might know that God does whatsoever He wishes with whomsoever He wishes.”

There is a famous Qur’anic Sura, Al-Kahf, in which the story of Moses’ meeting with Al-Khidr (never named as Al-Khidr, but accepted to be him universally in Islam) is recounted. In this story to be very brief, Moses asks to accompany Al-Khidr…Al-Khidr permits this but says that if Moses questions his actions he will have to leave him. A series of seemingly bizarre incidents follow Moses is not able to refrain from questioning these actions (perhaps forgetting that he himself had killed a man in Egypt!).

Al-Khidr explains very simply why he acted as he did…The MEANING of this is expressed also in this Sura Khidr is described as “one of our faithful servants, to whom we have given the Ilm-i LadunniGod’s Private , Secret, Knowledge of Himself. What he brings is outside the comprehension of prophets and contained in no prophetic message…

The Green One’s way is mysterious but full of a strange lightening and ascension to a different state of consciousness all who he comes close to are secretly, invisibly, completely esoterically, transformed in their interior consciousness…I would not talk about the “Green One” behind his back…so I ask him for permission … in the religion called Islam and in much older Eastern esotericism, the “Green One” represents, is, the embodiment of the secret knowledge, intrinsic knowledge through BEING, not prophetic knowledge, as the story in the Qur’an (Sura Kaf) of Musa (Moses) and Al-Khidr makes absolutely clear.

Its interesting that the Qur’an itself points to a higher knowledge completely outside the Qur’an…or the prophetic knowledge, the Ilm-i-Ladunni, “God’s Private Knowledge of Himself”, that Al Khidr is the guardian, keeper and dispenser of…the Qur’an says that “even the bees have this Knowledge” which we may understand as knowledge through BEING, intrinsic knowledge through what we are, not words. He is the guide of all those who seek closeness to The Real, without intermediary, directly “The Way of the Private Face”.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, and ‘Abdur-Razzaq, may Allah be pleased with them, said that the Prophet said concerning Al-Khidr “He was called Al-Khidr because he sat on a barren patch of withered vegetation that turned white, then it turned green (Khadra’) beneath him.”

There are no hierarchies in Being. Being is Being. The ‘I am’ in all things is the same ‘I am’. Nothing ever left the Reality…there was no ‘creation’ outside the Divine…all takes place as a single thing, is a singularity divisible only in thought, but never in actuality.

What interests the seeker personally is more primordial… in the direct words of Christ in “The Gospel of Thomas” (Split a piece of wood and I am there” “Master, when will the Kingdom of Heaven come?…”Its all around you. Its just you are too stupid to see it”).

In a state of Pure Awareness can YOU SEE any ‘hierarchies’? Can you see any limits anywhere? Does your Heart or your Awareness end somewhere? Where? Hierarchical systems are provisional means of explanation. But when they become ‘objects of belief’ they “limit God” and cause terrible problems, through a lack of clarity, one-pointedness.

Gnosis means to go beyond all opinion and all belief into direct perception, ma’rifet, and pure faith, Imam. Mevlana said “ I lost all the religions..and then I found my religion”…but one is a pre-condition for the other. The Sura of Purity in the Qur’an says “In the Name of God, The Most Merciful, The Most Compassionate, Say He God is One, Sufficient unto Himself. Nothing came forth from Him and nothing devolved from Him. Say He God is One.” Muhammed explictly said 3 sayings of this verse were equivalent to reciting the entire Qur’an.

Lets look at Ramana Maharshi, talking from The Real…”Haqqiqat” in Arabic…“Talking of the “witness” should not lead to the idea that there is a witness and something else apart from him that he is witnessing. The “witness” really means the light that illumines the seer, the seen and the process of seeing”. “You are the constant illumination that lights up both the experiences and the void”. “You yourself are the illumination”. “It is the ego that rises as ‘I’. That from which it arises is the Self”. “You are awareness. Awareness is another name for you”.“To cease to identify yourself with the mind is all that is required.”

“Brahman exists as “I am”, in every thing and every being”.

‎ “Hierarchies” are an artifact of trying to approach Being/ The Real with the Relative …rather than through the flame of that Being as our own Reality. A hierarchic understanding can have some useful aspects as a means of explanation if the primordial comprehension of Unity has first been established, but to approach the Absolute through the Relative is foolishness. One major apparent paradox in Ibn ‘Arabi is that The Absolute is completely unapproachable from the contingent, but is our Reality…Yunus Emre “I wrapped myself in flesh and bones and called myself ‘Yunus”.”

Classically Sufism is a process of ascent from ‘Hearing about God’ (which may include maps of consciousness, hierarchical means of explanation of ‘creation’) to ‘Seeing God’ to Realisation in direct experience. The higher Spiritual stations, far beyond simple ‘Union with God’ include ‘The Spiritual Station of No Station’ (Maqam la Maqam) …and an erasure of all so-called knowledges in order to stand unaffectedly, without any pretence, naked, in the Presence…

The attempts to conflate direct perception with hierarchical concepts simply confuses the clarity of “There is no higher or lower in Being” (Ramana Maharshi). Ibn ‘Arabi’s Sufism is radical even in a Sufi context, for an emphasis which is remorselessly exacting on the absolute singularity of Being. It is necessary to cut through illusion and it is our responsibility to do so at all costs. It is a common human illness to be incapable except through often years of learnt discipline, of distingushing imagination, projection, wish fulfillment and other extrapolations and interpretations from what we actually experience through mystical intuition.

In Sufism actually we usually take the terms “God” (Allah), “Truth/The Truth” (Haqq, Haqqiqat), “Reality/ The Real” simply as different verbal constructions from slightly different points of view OF THE SAME REALITY.

We could provide many references for this … The Kernel of the Kernel for example (page 32) “This Reality in question is called in Arabic “wujud” (Existence), in Turkish “varlik” (Existence), in Persian “hati” (Existence), but in Reality, this Existence is transcendent beyond all these names. What is true is that to explain this they use the terms wujud (being), ashq (love), nür (light), nafs (self), or rahman (clemence), but that which is meant by all of these is the name of the One Being which is Haqq (Reality).” Paradoxically to Western intellectualised systems where verbal formulations proliferate, in Sufism we can usually find an increasing simplification of apparent complex terminology as we realise SOMETHING REAL WHİCH HAS NO NAME is what all the various systems are describing, and giving us a taste of.

The Way that can be Named is not the Supreme Way” Lao Tse.

In the beginning of involvement in ‘Sufism’ (‘Gnosis’ might be a clearer term, direct knowledge through Being), often we are studying many things, complex systems which are quite new and different to what we knew before, Meditations, outward Zikr, Prayers…all this is a preparation and corresponds actually to Seriat /Shariah, as Self-Purification and absorption of a useful (for later stages of Ma’rifet and Haqqiqat) new world-view. It’s a preparation of the place. Later, in the stages of verfication and self-actualisation of these knowledges things become much more simple. We can only consistently remember in ordinary life a short sentence or phrase…all the complexities we met in study are largely useless to us, because though we may think we learnt them, in fact we cannot remember them in daily life, minute by minute.

The degrees of Fana (Fana of Actions, Attributes, and Essence) which involved studies for years very often, become reduced in the method expounded by Metin Bobaroglu to simply trying to accord with His Goodness, His Justice, His Beauty to act with a general principle, undefined, of being ‘Good’, To acquire the quality of being ‘Just’, to perceive Beauty consciously and intentionally.

Hundreds of pages of explanations are reduced to a simple necessary action. The Bektashi say “Control your hand, tongue and sexuality“…again a simple initiation into the reality of all these words…first we must stop lying to ourselves and others. Then many internal devils will fall…because they all depend upon our unconsciousness, our willfully keeping within us a ‘grey area’ of self-justified lying.

If we see someone who claims or seems interested in ‘Sufism’. and we see that still they are lying to themselves and others, we know certainly that they didn’t even begin the path.

In Gurdjieff there is the concept of “putting oneself in the position of the result“. Not by any right, but with the utmost humility. Because theres no other way to the maturity and process of perfectibility of Mankind…the Insan-i-Kamil, than beginning to become moment by moment with no guarantee, with failure after failure, that Reality of being human.

Its obvious why Shams-i-Tabrizi felt impelled to throw Mevlana’s books into a well…reading is not enough. The Truth FOR US is not in any book, only in ourselves, the “Book of Ourself”. And we have to begin this process, not engaging in verbal games, fake ‘sohbets’ and ‘muhabbets’ but in inner silence…Shams is “saying”…”Hey its time to cut the crap and begin”. No one can do this for you…not the greatest teacher, not your sincere devotion, not your prayers to God as “other”…not any wonderful deep conversation, not any thought or any feeling.

There is a certain brutality in cutting to the chase within ourselves. It means we became disillusioned, “I lost all the religions…and then I found my religion” (Mevlana). First is a detoxification from Sufism’s “madness”…Hazreti ‘Ali ” To look for Union with God without being separate is madness”… when we realize our “knowledge” is utterly empty…then the conclusion that we need to begin to actually BE gnostics, Sufis, in the Presence of the Real. And to accept that we will fail over and over again as we try to act in accordance with “Conscious Love”, but never cease learning…

All sacred spaces are ‘liminal’, ‘between’ (the worlds)...just as ‘Man’ (Man in the process of Perfecting, Insan-i-Kamil ) is a liminal creature, ‘between’ the arcs…the arc of possibility, imkan, and the arc of the necessarily so-ness, wujub…( “…the Ipseity “extends without extension into the heart (centre, inside) of the Perfect Man” and this is the Batin, (interior, non-visible, hidden) of the Perfect Man and that his exterior which is the Zahir(visible, manifested, etc) is the Universes, the whole of the manifestation”, From Bulent Rauf, ‘Addresses’)

Khidr/ Hizir is a liminal figure par excellence. Whats the essence of the idea of ‘liminality’?
We deliberately reject any interpretation- tempting as it may be- so many seek to ‘reduce’ the mysterious (and Al Khidr is an irruption of a cosmic ‘myth’) to a rational unity…maybe the most dangerously stupid of all people are the ones who cannot accept the ‘irrational’ as C.G. Jung points out in ‘Memories’, Dreams and Reflections’, and as he goes on to say, because of this will remain forever incomplete, ie, cut off from mystery and the Ghayb, the unseen).

‘Magicality’ really is in the ‘liminal’ undefined space between defined worlds, like in Sufism the reality of man is always between worlds “The Living and the Dead”, transcendence and immanence, “The Arc of the necessarily-so and the Arc of unlimited potentiality”…

…”It is only when we are aware of our complete contradiction that we begin to really SEE”…then we have to begin to see or go insane, for all defined limits have turned to dust.

C. G. Jung says Khidr reveals not just the greenness of the chlorophyll within the leaves, not just the sunlight / water responsible for their nourishment and liveliness, and not just the (secondary) green ray of light that is refracted as the “middle-pillar” within the light spectrum, but also the (primary) undifferentiated light of a pure and altered consciousness. For Jung, Khidr resembles the inner self.

If we are to follow Khidr we must surrender to the inner essence of the heart of hearts that is the real teacher: “I am transcendent reality, and I am the tenuous thread that brings it very close. I am the secret of man in his very act of existing, and I am that invisible one who is the object of worship…. I am the Sheikh with the divine nature, and I am the guardian of the world of human nature…” (Abd al-Kerim Jili).

Henri Corbin wrote in “Alone with the Alone”, a study of the creative imagination in the Sufism of Ibn ‘Arabi, that the cosmic mountain, Mount Kaf, on which lives the Simurgh or Anka bird, must be climbed by the mystic…but only Al_Khidr can climb this mountain. So he says the Sufi must become Al-Khidr…

“My servant, if you desire to enter into My intimacy, do not pay attention to the Mulk (the phenomenal world of witnessing), the Melekut (the world of Angels), or the Jebberut (the world of compulsion of the Divine)” Hadith Qudsi.

Gilani: “Whoever is satisfied with one of these (the Hadaras, planes of Being), they are expelled from the company – at the level of God – it is thus. I mean to say that they have lost the right of Closeness to the Divine Ipseity. Their degrees (of ascension) are stopped. But they had desired Closeness they cannot reach that Universe in this state. Because they did not desire the thing that was essential…They had only one wing”.

The Biblical Idris is Enoch (Genesis V/23) who lived for 365 years on earth, a healer, teacher, one well versed in sciences and the arts and one whom God took unto himself. The consonants of the word Enoch, mean ‘initiated’. Hebrew Hanoch means initiator or opener of the inner eye.

The Koranic Idris is al-Khidr who appears in Sura 18/66 (Al Kalf, The Cave), where Moses and his attendant go on a long journey to a point where two rivers met, a point to be seen even though the march would take them ages. According to revelation received by Prophet Mohammad, they meet a personage who is “one of our slaves, unto whom we had taught knowledge peculiar to us” (wa ‘allalnnahu min ladunna ilmy). This phrase alone categorically asserts the transmission of theosophia or divine wisdom down the ages, through Divine Guides or Teachers as the word rusted implies in the question Moses asks him: May I follow you on the understanding that you, a rusted teach me, what you have been taught?”

What were the hallmarks of the teachings of the hanifs or illuminati?

  1. Laws of involutionary and evolutionary cycles.
  2. Laws of emanation and manifestation.
  3. Science of the heart-mind (qalb)
  4. Science of Light (hikmat al-ilraq)
  5. The spiritual communion with the hierarchial Beings.

The periodical manifestation of Light called Logos, Christ or Word in Christianity, Buddha in Buddhism. Teerthamkara in Jainism, is termed qutb in Islam. Ali al Hujwiri in Khashf al Mahajab writes of such a hierarchy “Besides the Qutb or Axis of the Universe, are three called Ifuqaba, four Awtad, seven Abdal”. Ibn al-Arabi too refers to seven Abdal.

It is significant that over and over again, the Quran uses the words We, Our, Us. The sense of preservers of the cosmic order can be attributed to these words. Sura xxxvii/l64 As-Saffat, Those Who Set the Ranks, reads:

There is not one of Us but hath his known position Lo! We, even We are They who set the ranks.”

The Greeks call al-Khadir, Hormux (Hermes) the adept and Initiator into the Temple Mysteries of the Great Pyramid. Isaiah 19/2 of the old Testament refers to this Pyramid Temple as the “altar to the Lord in the middle of Egypt”. Hermes, known to the Arabs as Idris, was called Enoch by the Hebrews.

The Spanish Arab historian Said of Toledo (d. 1069) said:

“Sages affirm that all antediluvian sciences originate with the first Hermes who lived in Said in upper Egypt.”

Idris, Enoch, al Khidr and Hermes all seem to be one person. This guide al-Khidr initiates Moses into deeply esoteric lore. The ijnaj Ilhami, in Hadith traditions, consider al-Khadir as a holy being, mysterious and immortal whom all spiritual initiatory orders revere as the Master of the Path (Tariqa). Al-Khidr is often mentioned as the Green Angel Guide in Islamic writings. In fact, in Egyptian frescoes he, Thot, is some times painted green with the head of an ibis.

Al-Khidr can most certainly be connected as the head of the ancient school of the Prophets, el-Khadoras on Mt Carmel (modern Haifa). This sacred mount in mentioned as having been handed back with endowment by Thutmose III in the 1449 B.C. documents which recorded his conquest of the region. He was a great initiate himself. Iamblichus, the Syrian philosopher, calls it the most holy of all mountains, forbidden of access to the profane. The Phophets Elijah, Elisha and Samuel are all recorded to have visited the schools for disciples at Naioth, Bethel and Jericho.

A very valuable text was among others withdrawn by the official circles of the Church from public use. It was the Apocalypse of Elias – a very sacred text of the mystic order of Nazarenes or Essenes, to which order Joseph, Mary, John the Baptist and Jesus himself belonged. Fortunately in 1893 Maspero discovered a Coptic translation of it in the monastic archives of the Brotherhood in Upper Egypt. It gave many details of the school of prophets where the ancient wisdom was imparted at Al Khador. Read more on The Apocaplypse of Elias

Christians who delve into the Qur’an will be surprised how many old friends they find there, including Jesus and Mary, of course, and a lengthy roster of prophets and patriarchs. Exploring the Qur’an can be an excellent way of understanding the Christian and Jewish worlds of Late Antiquity, roughly the sixth and seventh centuries BC.

Most of the Qur’anic characters can be identified easily enough. Allowing for legendary accretions, the Qur’anic Musa is not too far from the Biblical Moses, Adam is Adam, Ibrahim is Abraham, and Yahya is John the Baptist. With a little digging we deduce that the great prophet Idris is the Enoch who features in a couple of verses in Gensis, but who starred in countless deeply influential apocryphal books. That last example reminds us that we should be alert to seeing figures not just in the characters they assume in the canonical scriptures, but in the often vast corpus of additional writings. The Qur’an emerged from a Near East thoroughly familiar with the Bible as we know it today, but also with a bewildering collection of apocryphal books.

One very popular Qur’anic hero is al-Khidr, “The Green One,” who appears in Sura 18, al-Kahf, verses 60-82. Seeking Wisdom, Moses travels to meet “One of [God’s] servants”, whom commentators universally identify as al-Khidr (18.65). Moses, in unexpectedly meek mode, begs to follow the Servant as a disciple, despite al-Khidr’s constant warnings that Moses could not stand the pace. He seemingly commits acts of violence and vandalism, to Moses’s horror, until he eventually explains the higher purpose underlying his deeds. His apparent crimes were an illusion that even foxed the great Moses.

Through Islamic history, al-Khidr has fascinated scholars and ordinary believers alike. They note that Moses treated him so respectfully, suggesting that he was very important, and perhaps a prophet, or at least a saint, a wali, a friend of God. In tradition, also, he never died, placing him in a select category limited to Idris, Ilyas and Isa (Enoch, Elijah and Jesus). In some versions, he owes this immortality to having found and drunk the Water of Life. Sufis rank him very highly as one who attained the highest levels of mystical insight.

Popular custom made al-Khidr a popular and revered figure. Across the Middle East, his shrines are (or were) much frequented, and commonly identified with the Christian St. George. In the popular imagination, both merged seamlessly with Elijah. A century ago, English archaeologist Frederick W. Hasluck wrote an important study of popular religion in the Middle East, during the last days of the Ottoman Empire. (It was published posthumously as Christianity and Islam under the Sultans (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929). Hasluck devotes a major portion of his work to the cult of al-Khidr, who was above all a patron saint of travelers. Hasluck wrote that:

the protean figure of Khidr has a peculiar interest for the study of popular religion in Asia Minor and the Near East generally. Accepted as a saint by orthodox Sunni Mohammedans, he seems to have been deliberately exploited by the heterodox Shia sects of Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Albania that is, by the Nosairi, the Yezidi, the Kizilbash, and the Bektashi for the purposes of their propaganda amongst non-Mohammedan populations. For Syrian, Greek, and Albanian Christians Khidr is identical with Elias and S. George. For the benefit of the Armenians he has been equated in Kurdistan with their favourite S. Sergius, and, just as Syrian Moslems make pilgrimages to churches of S. George, so do the Kizilbash Kurds of the Dersim to Armenian churches of St. Sergius (i, 335).

Muslims and Christians alike attended the same holy places, with some believers seeking the aid of George, and others petitioning al-Khidr.

Qur’anic tradition often transforms well-known Judaeo-Christian heroes in surprising ways, but rarely invents characters altogether, out of whole cloth. It’s a reasonable bet, then, that the “Servant” is meant to be a figure from Jewish or Christian tradition and scripture, even if from the apocrypha or pseudepigrapha.

The most important thing we know about al-Khidr is who he is not. He cannot be a Biblical figure who is named elsewhere in the Qur’an, or he would have been identified accordingly. That immediately rules out Moses (obviously), Enoch, Elijah, Jesus, and many other obvious names. Subject to that limitation, he must be a figure known in Jewish and Christian memory as a mysterious being of extreme supernatural power, one of mysterious origins, without known circumstances of birth or death.

Unless I am missing something obvious, that really leaves only one candidate, and that is Melchizedek, King of Salem. (I am certainly not the first to make that point). As I wrote in a recent post, “In the canonical Bible, Melchizedek appears briefly as a king and priest who meets Abraham, and blesses him with bread and wine (Gen. 14). Throughout Christian history, Melchizedek has fascinated readers as a forerunner of Christ, and of the priesthood.” He features frequently in European art, usually in a Eucharistic context.

He also appears cryptically in the New Testament, in words that strongly recall the mysterious portrait of al-Khidr. The Epistle to the Hebrews notes that

This Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of peace Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life but made like unto the Son of God abideth a priest continually. Now consider how great this man was, unto whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils….. After the similitude of Melchizedek there ariseth another priest, Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life. For he testifieth, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.

Hebrews makes a similar argument to what we will later find in the Qur’an. If even a titan like Abraham (or Moses) defers to this man, how enormously powerful must he have been!

Melchizedek appears as a character in the extensive Adam mythology that circulated in early times, and which was hugely popular in the Eastern Syriac world. In the Cave of Treasures (which certainly influenced the Qur’an), he joins Noah’s son Shem in moving Adam’s body to its new site at Golgotha, under what would centuries later become the place of Jesus’s crucifixion. Shem appointed Melchizedek to carry out his priestly duties on the site forever: “Thou shalt be the priest of the Most High God, because thou alone hath God chosen to minister before Him in this place. And thou shalt sit here continually, and shalt not depart from this place all the days of thy life.” The scene is thus set for his later meeting with Abraham. Read Here the Book of the Cave

Muslim scholar al-Tabari quotes writers who placed al-Khidr in the time of Abraham, long before the days of Moses.

Really, nobody else fits the bill.

Here again, then, the Qur’an is using a Biblical figure who was vastly important in the Christian world of its time, but one who has become quite obscure to many later Christians. (He does play a critical role in the Mormon tradition). Whatever its other qualities, the Qur’an gives a remarkable glimpse of the mental and spiritual world of Middle Eastern religious believers of all kinds during a critical stage of their historical development.

General info about khidr:

Khidr or al-Khidr (Arabic: al-Khir also transcribed as Khidr, Khizr, Khyzer, Qeezr, Qhezr, Qhizyer, Qhezar, Khizar, Xızır, Hızır) is a mystical figure that some believe to be described in the Quran as a righteous servant of God possessing great wisdom or mystic knowledge. In various Islamic and non-Islamic traditions, Khidr is described as a messenger, prophet, wali or in some cases as a deity who takes the worldly place of an otherwise passive God. The figure of al-Khidr has been syncretized over time with various other figures including Vishnu in India, Sorush in Iran, Saint Sarkis the Warrior and John the Baptist in
Armenia, Saint George in Asia Minor and the Levant, etc. Read More

Recently, by the way, Ethel Sara Wolper has an essay on “Khidr and the Politics of Place” in Margaret Cormack, ed., Muslims And Others In Sacred Space (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).


Apokalypsis

Cognate: 602 apokálypsis – properly, uncovering (unveiling). See 601 (apokalyptō). 602 /apokálypsis (“revelation, unveiling”), especially a particular (spiritual) manifestation of Christ energy previously unknown to the extent (because “veiled, covered”). A radical change is on the horizon – are you ready? What if…we only took what we needed? What if…there were no gods and no masters? What if…we cared about the health of the heart…


Contents

The name "al-Khiḍr" shares exactly the same triliteral root as the Arabic al-akhḍar or al-khaḍra, a root found in several Semitic languages meaning "green" or "verdant" (as in al-Qubbah al-Khaḍrā’ or the Green Dome). Therefore, the meaning of the name has traditionally been taken to be "the Green One" or "the Verdant One". Some contemporary scholars have disagreed with this assessment [18] however some others point to a possible reference to the Mesopotamian figure Utnapishtim from the Epic of Gilgamesh through the Arabization of his nickname, "Hasisatra". [19] According to another view, the name Khidr is not an Arabic variant or an abbreviation of Hasisatra, but it may have been derived from the name of the Canaanite god Kothar-wa-Khasis [20] [21] and later it may have been assimilated to the Arabic "al-akhḍar". [22]

In the Quran 18:65–82, Moses meets the Servant of God, referred to in the Quran as "one of our slaves whom We had granted mercy from Us and whom We had taught knowledge from Ourselves". [23] Muslim scholars identify him as Khiḍr, although he is not explicitly named in the Quran and there is no reference to him being immortal or being especially associated with esoteric knowledge or fertility. [24] These associations come in later scholarship on al-Khiḍr. [25]

The Quran states that they meet at the junction of two seas, where a fish that Moses and his servant had intended to eat has escaped. Moses asks for permission to accompany the Servant of God so Moses can learn "right knowledge of what [he has] been taught". [26] The Servant informs him that "surely you [Moses] cannot have patience with me. And how canst thou have patience about things about which thy understanding is not complete?" [27] Moses promises to be patient and obey him unquestioningly, and they set out together. After they board a ship, the Servant of God damages the vessel. Forgetting his oath, Moses says, "Have you made a hole in it to drown its inmates? Certainly you have done a grievous thing." The Servant reminds Moses of his warning, "Did I not say that you will not be able to have patience with me?" and Moses pleads not to be rebuked.

Next, the Servant of God kills a young man. Moses again cries out in astonishment and dismay, and again the Servant reminds Moses of his warning, and Moses promises that he will not violate his oath again, and that if he does he will excuse himself from the Servant's presence. They then proceed to a town where they are denied hospitality. This time, instead of harming anyone or anything, the Servant of God restores a decrepit wall in the village. Yet again Moses is amazed and violates his oath for the third and last time, asking why the Servant did not at least exact "some recompense for it."

The Servant of God replies, "This shall be separation between me and you now I will inform you of the significance of that with which you could not have patience. Many acts which seem to be evil, malicious or somber, actually are merciful. The boat was damaged to prevent its owners from falling into the hands of a king who seized every boat by force. And as for the boy, his parents were believers and we feared lest he should make disobedience and ingratitude to come upon them. God will replace the child with one better in purity, affection and obedience. As for the restored wall, the Servant explained that underneath the wall was a treasure belonging to two helpless orphans whose father was a righteous man. As God's envoy, the Servant restored the wall, showing God's kindness by rewarding the piety of the orphans' father, and so that when the wall becomes weak again and collapses, the orphans will be older and stronger and will take the treasure that belongs to them." [28]

Among the strongest transmitted proofs about the life of al-Khiḍr are two reports, one narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Al-Zuhd whereby Muhammad is said to have stated that the prophet Elijah (Ilyas) and al-Khiḍr meet every year and spend the month of Ramadan in Jerusalem [ citation needed ] and the other narrated by Ya'qub ibn Sufyan from Umar II whereby a man he was seen walking with was actually al-Khiḍr. Ibn Hajar declared the claim of the first fair and that of the second sound in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 6:435). He goes on to cite another sound report narrated by ibn Asakir from Abu Zur’a al-Razi whereby the latter met al-Khiḍr twice, once in his youth, the other in old age, but al-Khiḍr himself had not changed.

The Islamic scholar Said Nursî also contends [29] that Khidr is alive, but that there are five degrees of life Khidr is at the second degree of life, [ clarification needed ] thus some religious scholars have been doubtful about it. Khidr and Ilyas are free to an extent. That is to say, they can be present in numerous places at the same time. They are not permanently restricted by the requirements of humanity like us. They can eat and drink like us when they want to, but are not compelled to be like we are. The saints are those who uncover and witness the realities of creation, and the reports of their adventures with Khidr are unanimous and elucidate and point to this level of life. There is even one degree of sainthood which is called 'the degree of Khidr.' A saint who reaches this degree receives instruction from Khidr and meets with him. But sometimes the one at that degree is mistaken to be Khidr himself. [29]

al-Khiḍr is believed to be a man who has the appearance of a young adult but a long, white beard. According to some authors like Abdul Haq Vidhyarthi, al-Khiḍr is Xerxes (a 6th-century Sasanian prince, not to be confused with Xerxes I), who disappeared after being in the lake regions of Sistan that comprise the wetlands of the Irano-Afghan border today, and after finding the fountain of life, sought to live his entire remaining life in service of God and to help those in their path/journey to Him.

Muhammad al-Bukhari reports that al-Khiḍr got his name after he was present over the surface of some ground that became green as a result of his presence there. There are reports from al-Bayhaqi that al-Khiḍr was present at the funeral of Muhammad and was recognized only by Ali from amongst the rest of the companions, and where he came to show his grief and sadness at the death of Muhammad. Al-Khiḍr's appearance at Muhammad's funeral is related as follows: A powerful-looking, fine-featured, handsome man with a white beard came leaping over the backs of the people till he reached where the sacred body lay. Weeping bitterly, he turned toward the Companions and paid his condolences. Ali said that he was Khiḍr. [30]

In another narration al-Khiḍr met with Ali by the Kaaba and instructed him about a supplication that is very meritorious when recited after the obligatory prayers. It is reported by Imam Muslim that during the time when the false Messiah appears and as he approaches at the outskirts of the city of Medina, a believer would challenge him, whom the false Messiah will slice into two pieces and rejoin, making it appear that he caused him to die and be resurrected, to which this man would proclaim the falsehood of the Dajjal who would try again to kill him (or make show of it) but would fail and thus his weakness and inability being made revealed. According to the commentators and transmitters of this narration, the person who will challenge the Antichrist and humiliate him will be al-Khiḍr.

Ja'far al-Sadiq narrates in Kitab al-Kafi that after entering the sacred Mosque in Mecca, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali, and Husayn ibn Ali were visited by a good looking, well dressed man who asked them a series of questions. Hasan answered the questions and upon this, the man testified to the prophet-hood of Muhammad followed by testifying that Ali and his Ahl al-Bayt are the successors and heir to his message. Ali asked Hasan to track the whereabouts of the visitor, but when he could not, Ali revealed the identity of the man to be Khidr. [31]

In "The History of al-Tabari" Edit

Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, writes about Khidr in a chapter of his The History of al-Tabari, called "The Tale of al-Khiḍr and His History and the History of Moses and His Servant Joshua." Al-Tabari describes several versions of the traditional story surrounding al-Khiḍr. At the beginning of the chapter, al-Tabari explains that in some variations, al-Khiḍr is a contemporary of the mythical Persian king Afridun, who was a contemporary of Abraham, and lived before the days of Moses. [32] Al-Khiḍr is also said to have been appointed to be over the vanguard of the king Dhul-Qarnayn the Elder, who in this version is identified as the king Afridun. [33] In this specific version, al-Khiḍr comes across the River of Life and, unaware of its properties, drinks from it and becomes immortal. [34] Al-Tabari also recounts that al-Khiḍr is said to have been the son of a man who believed in Abraham, and who emigrated with Abraham when he left Babylon. [35]

Al-Khiḍr is also commonly associated with Elijah, even equated with him, and al-Tabari makes a distinction in the next account in which al-Khiḍr is Persian and Elijah is an Israelite. According to this version of al-Khiḍr's story, al-Khiḍr and Elijah meet every year during the annual festival season. [35]

Al-Tabari seems more inclined to believe that al-Khiḍr lived during the time of Afridun before Moses, rather than traveled as Abraham's companion and drank the water of life. [36] He does not state clearly why he has this preference, but rather seems to prefer the chain of sources (the isnad) of the former story rather than the latter.

The various versions in al-Tabari's History more or less parallel each other and the account in the Quran. However, in the stories al-Tabari recounts, Moses claims to be the most knowledgeable man on earth, and God corrects him by telling him to seek out al-Khiḍr. Moses is told to bring a salted fish, and once he found the fish to be missing, he would then find al-Khiḍr. Moses sets out with a travel companion, and once they reach a certain rock, the fish comes to life, jumps into the water, and swims away. It is at this point that Moses and his companion meet al-Khiḍr.

Al-Tabari also adds to lore surrounding the origins of al-Khiḍr's name. He refers to a saying of Muhammad that al-Khiḍr ("the Green" or "the Verdant") was named because he sat on a white fur and it shimmered green with him. [37]

In Shia Islam Edit

Many Shia Muslims believe al-Khiḍr accompanied Muhammad al-Mahdi in meeting one Sheikh Hassan ibn Muthlih Jamkarani, on 22 February 984 CE (17 Ramadan 373 A.H.) and instructing him to build Jamkaran Mosque at that site of their meeting. [38] The site, six kilometers east of Qom, Iran, has been a pilgrimage destination for the Shia for some time. [39]

In Ismailism, al-Khiḍr is considered as one of the 'permanent Imams' that is, those who have guided people throughout history. [40]

In Sufism Edit

To Sufis, al-Khiḍr holds a distinguished position. Although amongst the Sunni scholars there is a difference of opinion about him being still alive, amongst Sunni Sufis there is almost a consensus that al-Khiḍr is still alive, with many respected figures and shaykhs, and prominent leaders claiming having had personal encounters with him. Examples of those who have claimed this are Abdul-Qadir Gilani, al-Nawawi, Ibn Arabi, Sidi Abdul Aziz ad-Dabbagh and Ahmad ibn Idris al-Fasi. Ibn Ata Allah's Lata'if al-Minan (1:84-98) states that there is consensus among the Sufis that al-Khiḍr is alive. In fact there are orders that claim origin with al-Khiḍr himself, or that al-Khiḍr was part of their chain, for example some of the Naqshbandi Haqqani Sufi Order, the Muhammadiyah, the Idrisiyya, and the Senussi are tariqat that had al-Khiḍr as one of the central figures connecting them to the spiritual outflow of Muhammad.

In Sufi tradition, al-Khiḍr has come to be known as one of those who receive illumination direct from God without human mediation. He is the hidden initiator of those who walk the mystical path, like some of those from the Uwaisi tariqa. Uwaisis are those who enter the mystical path without being initiated by a living master. Instead they begin their mystical journey either by following the guiding light of the teachings of the earlier masters or by being initiated by the mysterious prophet-saint al-Khiḍr.

Al-Khiḍr has had thus gained enormous reputation and popularity in the Sufi tradition due to his role as an initiator. Through this way come several Sufi orders which claim initiation through al-Khiḍr and consider him their master. Al-Khiḍr had thus come to symbolize access to the divine mystery (ghayb) itself. In the writings of Abd al-Karim al-Jili, al-Khiḍr rules over ‘the Men of the Unseen' (rijalu’l-ghayb)— the exalted saints and angels. Al-Khiḍr is also included among what in classical Sufism are called the ‘’abdāl’’ (‘those who take turns’). In Sufi hierarchy, ‘’abdāl’’ is a mysterious rank. It is thought in Sufism that God decides who will be abdal for a decade before an abdal is born. Adbals are thought as the gainers of mysterious power that is knowing the future also called Ilm-e-ladunni. They are deployed to protect Islam from some unwanted evil activities that threaten the existence of Islam. In a divinely-instituted hierarchy of such saints, al-Khiḍr holds the rank of their spiritual head.

The Sri Lankan Sufi Bawa Muhaiyaddeen gives a unique account of al-Khiḍr. Al-Khiḍr was on a long search for God, until God, out of his mercy, sends the Archangel Gabriel to guide him. Gabriel appears to al-Khiḍr as a wise human sage, and al-Khiḍr accepts him as his teacher. Gabriel teaches al-Khiḍr much in the same way as al-Khiḍr later teaches Moses in the Quran, by carrying out seemingly unjust actions. Al-Khiḍr repeatedly breaks his oath not to speak out against Gabriel's actions, and is still unaware that the human teacher is actually Gabriel. Gabriel then explains his actions, and reveals his true angelic form to al-Khiḍr. Al-Khiḍr recognises him as the Archangel Gabriel, and then Gabriel bestows a spiritual title upon al-Khiḍr, by calling him Hayat Nabi, the Eternal Life Prophet.

The French scholar of Sufism, Henry Corbin, interprets al-Khiḍr as the mysterious prophet, the eternal wanderer. The function of al-Khiḍr as a 'person-archetype' is to reveal each disciple to himself, to lead each disciple to his own theophany, because that theophany corresponds to his own 'inner heaven,' to the form of his own being, to his eternal individuality. Accordingly, al-Khiḍr is Moses' spiritual guide, who initiates Moses into the divine sciences, and reveals to him the secret mystic truth.

In Ahmadiyya Edit

Ahmadi exegeses of the Quran tend to identify the "Servant of God" whom Moses met to be the symbolic representation of Muhammad himself. Ahmadis believe that the Quranic passage of Moses' encounter with the "Servant of God" is closely linked, contextually, to the subject matter of surah Al Kahf in which his story is cited. According to Ahmadi commentaries, Moses' journey towards, and his meeting with the "servant of God" was a visionary experience similar to the Mi'raj (ascension) of Muhammad whom Moses had desired to see and was shown in this vision. [41] The nature of the dialogue between Moses and the "Servant of God" and the relationship between them is seen as indicative of the personal characteristics of Moses and Muhammad as well as those of their respective followers Khiḍr's seemingly inappropriate actions and the wisdom behind them are understood with reference to salient features of Muhammad's life and teachings and the entire Quranic narrative is understood as being expressive of Muhammad's spiritual superiority over Moses and the superseding of the Judaic dispensation by the Islamic one. [42]

There are many figures in Iran whose place Khidr took by the Islamization process. One of them is paradoxically a female figure, Anahita. The most popular shrine in Yazd is dedicated to Anahita. Among the Zoroastrians, for the pilgrims to Yazd, the most important of the six pir is Pir-e Sabz ("the green shrine"). The name of the shrine derives from the greenness of the foliage growing around the sanctuary. [43] It is still a functional temple and the holiest site for present-day Zoroastrians living in Iran. [44]

Each year from 14–18 June, many thousands of Zoroastrians from Iran, India and other countries make a pilgrimage to Yazd in Iran to worship at a hillside grotto containing the sacred spring dedicated to Pir-e Sabz. Here the worshippers pray for the fertilising rain and celebrate the greening of nature and the renewal of life. [ citation needed ]

As Babayan says, "Khizr is related to the Zoroastrian water goddess Anahita, and some of her former sanctuaries in Iran were rededicated to him (Pir-i Sabz)". [45] [ better source needed ]

The source of the Quranic episode of Moses's journey with Khiḍr is not immediately clear. Historian Brannon M. Wheeler notes that the story does not appear to have any direct Christian or Jewish antecedent. [46]

In one of the most influential hypotheses on the source of the Khiḍr story, the early twentieth-century Dutch historian Arent Jan Wensinck [de] argued that the tale was derived from a Jewish legend involving the Talmudic rabbi Joshua ben Levi and the Biblical prophet Elijah. [47] As with Moses and Khiḍr, Ben Levi asks to follow Elijah, who agrees under the condition that the former not question any actions he may take. One night, Ben Levi and Elijah are hosted by a poor man who owns only a cow, which Elijah slaughters. The next day, they are refused hospitality by a rich man, but the prophet fixes the man's wall without receiving pay. Finally, the two are refused hospitality by people at a rich synagogue but hosted by a group of poor people. Elijah prays to God to turn everyone in the rich synagogue into rulers, but says that only one person out of the latter should rule. When Ben Levi questions the prophet, the prophet explains that he killed the cow as a replacement for the soul of the man's wife, who was due to die that day that he fixed the wall because there was treasure underneath it that the rich man would otherwise have found while fixing it himself and that his prayer was because a land under a single ruler is preferable to one with multiple ones. Wensinck believed that the author of the Quran had taken the Khiḍr story directly from this Jewish source but had confused the names of the characters involved. [48]

This Jewish legend is first attested in an Arabic work by the eleventh-century Tunisian Jewish scholar Nissim ben Jacob, some four hundred years after the composition of the Quran. [49] Haim Schwarzbaum [de] argued as early as in 1960 that the story appeared to be "utterly dependent upon the Koranic [sic] text", with even the language more akin to typical Classical Arabic than to other stories by Ben Jacob with clear Talmudic origins. [50] Noting that Ben Jacob's compilation includes other stories with clear Islamic antecedents, Wheeler also suggests that the Jewish story of Elijah was created under Islamic influence, remarking that its parallels with the story of Khiḍr align more closely to the elaborations of later Islamic commentaries rather than the concise narrative of the Quran itself. For example, the Jewish story involves Ben Levi purposely seeking out Elijah just as God tells Moses to seek out Khiḍr in the Islamic commentaries, whereas the Quran itself never states whether the meeting between Moses and Khiḍr is intentional or accidental. [51] A close association between Elijah and Khiḍr is also first attested from a number of early Islamic sources. [52] Ben Jacob may have changed the character of the faulty disciple from Moses to Joshua ben Levi because he was wary of attributing negative qualities to the Jewish prophet and because Ben Levi was already a familiar recurrent character in Jewish literature. [53]

Another early story similar to the tale of Khiḍr is of Christian provenance. A damaged and non-standard thirteenth-century Greek manuscript of the Leimōn Pneumatikos, a hagiographical work by the pre-Islamic Byzantine monk John Moschus, includes the conclusion of a narrative involving an angel and a monk, in which the angel explains certain strange actions he had presumably taken in earlier, now lost sections of the narrative. The angel had stolen a cup from a generous host, because he knew that the cup was stolen and that their host would be unwittingly sinning if he continued to possess it. He had killed the son of another generous host, because he knew that the boy would grow to be a sinner if he reached adulthood but would go to heaven if he died before committing his sins. Finally, the angel had repaired the wall of a man who had refused them hospitality, because he knew that there was treasure underneath that the man would otherwise have found. [54] French historian Roger Paret points out that the Moschus story is much more closely aligned to the Quranic episode than the Jewish legend for instance, the angel in the Greek story and the "servant of God" in the Quran are both anonymous and vaguely defined, in contrast to the named figures of the Jewish Elijah or Khiḍr in Islamic exegesis. [55] The tale of the angel and the monk is part of a wider Late Antique Christian tradition of theodicy, which may have influenced the author of the Quran. [56] Gabriel Said Reynolds, a scholar of Islamic theology, has regarded the Moschus tale as the likely source of the Quranic narrative. [57]

Schwarzbaum has also argued that the Quranic narrative originated in a Late Antique context in which Christian theodicy legends involving monks were popular, with being the equivalent of the Christian pneumatic with knowledge derived directly from the Divine. and that the story probably reached Muhammad "through the intermediary of some Christian informant, presumably some monk well-versed in the numerous old Christian legends of anchorites and hermits." [58] Schwarzbaum also speculated of an ultimately Jewish prototype for Khiḍr, possibly a legend involving Moses becoming a disciple of the future Rabbi Akiva, compiler of the Oral Torah. [59] While agreeing that the Quranic story "combines disparate elements from motifs current in late antiquity", Wheeler rejects Schwarzbaum's connection between Rabbi Akiva and Khiḍr. [60]

In the Quranic narrative which immediately precedes Moses's encounter with Khiḍr, a fish that Moses and his servant had intended to eat escapes into the sea, and the prophet encounters Khiḍr when he returns to the place where the fish escaped. The episode of the fish is generally thought to derive from an episode in the Alexander Romance of Late Antiquity in which Alexander's cook discovers the Fountain of Life while washing a dead fish in it, which then comes to life and escapes. [61] The Alexander Romance is partly derived from the ancient Epic of Gilgamesh, which means that the Quranic narrative is ultimately related to the story of Gilgamesh. [62] But some scholars, including Wensinck, have argued that certain elements of the story of Moses and Khiḍr show influence from Gilgamesh that goes beyond the Alexander Romance. In this line of analysis, Khiḍr is considered an Islamic counterpart of Utnapishtim, the immortal sage of Mesopotamian mythology with esoteric knowledge from the gods, who Gilgamesh unsuccessfully consults in order to attain immortality. Khiḍr is similar to Utnapishtim in that they are both considered immortal—although the former's immortality is mentioned only in later Islamic sources, not the Qur'an—and in that Moses encounters Khiḍr at the "meeting place of the two waters", while Gilgamesh visits Utnapishtim at the "mouth of the waters". [63]

In Anatolian folk religion Edit

A hypothesis on the role of Khiḍr in Anatolian folk religion, suggested by Turkish scholar Gürdal Aksoy, compares him with the Ugaritic god Kothar-wa-Khasis. Both figures possess wisdom and secret knowledge. [64] Both are involved in the slaying of a dragon. Kothar helps Baal to kill Yam-Nahar by making weapons for him. Khidr helps Sufis or wali's like Sarı Saltuk in their struggle with a dragon. [65] According to some other stories he plays a central role, not that of a helper, and slays the dragon himself. [66] [67] For example, the people who live in Antakya (Turkey) tell a story about this feature of Khidr. [68]

Kothar and Khidr are also known as "sailor" figures who are symbolically associated with sea, lake and rivers. [69] Chusor is an inventor of the boat and he saves sailors. [70] It believed that he was the first voyager on a boat. Khidr helps people when they need help and the most of these dangerous conditions are about seas, lakes and rivers, etc. For example, he sometimes helps children when they are drowning in the water or he helps boatmen during stormy weather. The Alevi Kurds of Dersim saw him as a savior and describe him as a "sovereign of the seas". [71] Khidr often has some characteristics of a sailor, even in cultural areas which are not directly linked to the sea, like mountainous Dersim. The Anatolian folk conception of Khidr may originally come from the culture of a people who inhabited the seashore. He has transformed to a wanderer by the cultural effects of darwishs and wanderer Sufis. [72]

Another hypothesis of Aksoy about the cultural origins of the Anatolian conception of Khidr points to another common element relating to a religious tradition in Near East, the traditional celebration of Hıdırellez. [64] Like Alevis, people make flour of roasted wheat on the day before the festival for Khidr. They keep it somewhere in the kitchen to see later for Khidr's traces. Next day in the morning if they see some signs on the flour, it means that Khidr came there to bring abundance and blessing for them. Later they bake some kind of cake which is called Qāvut, Kavut, Köme or Göme. [8] [73] According to Aksoy, this tradition originated from the mythico-rituals of Ancient Near Eastern dying gods like Osiris, Adonis (also Dionysos, Melqart and Mithra), and the process which shows the transformation of the grain to flour symbolizes cremation (death) of the god. [74]

In various accounts al-Khidr has been linked to the figure of Dhu al-Qarnayn, who is either identified as Cyrus the Great or the Himyarite King Ṣaʿb. [75] In one version, al-Khiḍr and Dhul-Qarnayn cross the Land of Darkness to find the Water of Life. Dhul-Qarnayn gets lost looking for the spring but al-Khiḍr finds it and gains eternal life. According to Wahb ibn Munabbih, quoted by Ibn Hisham, King Ṣaʿb was given the epithet Dhu al-Qarnayn by al-Khidr after meeting him in Jerusalem. [75] There are also several versions of the Alexander romance in which al-Khiḍr figures as a servant of Alexander the Great. In the Iskandarnamah by an anonymous author, al-Khiḍr is asked by Dhul-Qarnayn to lead him and his armies to the Water of Life. [76] Al-Khiḍr agrees, and eventually stumbles upon the Water of Life on his own. [77]

Some scholars suggest that al-Khiḍr is also represented in the Arthurian tale Sir Gawain and the Green Knight as the Green Knight. [78] In the story, the Green Knight tempts the faith of Sir Gawain three times. The character of al-Khiḍr may have come into European literature through the mixing of cultures during the Crusades. [79] It is also possible that the story derives from an Irish myth which predates the Crusades in which Cú Chulainn and two other heroes compete for the curadmír, the select portion given to champions, at feasts ultimately, Cú Chulainn is the only one willing to let a giant — actually a king who has magically disguised himself — cut off his head, as per their agreement.

In certain parts of India, al-Khiḍr is also known as Khawaja Khidr, a river spirit of wells and streams. [80] He is mentioned in the Sikandar-nama as the saint who presides over the well of immortality, and is revered by both Hindus and Muslims Name of the Supreme God Worshipped by both Hindu & Muslim in Asia is Kabir, Kabir Saheb, Allah-Kabir, Allah hu Akabir. [80] He is sometimes pictured as an old man dressed in green, and is believed to ride upon a fish. [80] His principal shrine is on an island of the Indus River by Bhakkar in Punjab, Pakistan. [80]

In The Unreasoning Mask by famed science fiction writer Philip José Farmer, while Ramstan, captain of the al-Buraq, a rare model spaceship capable of instantaneous travel between two points, attempts to stop an unidentified creature that is annihilating intelligent life on planets throughout the universe, he is haunted by repeating vision of meeting al-Khiḍr.


Khidr

Remember : please click open in new tab each typed letter with a different color

His European consort is the Spring Maiden, Flora, May Queen, Green Faerie Absinthe, or Lady Bercilak, wife of The Grim Man in Green in the 14 th century romance, Sir Gawain and The Green Knight, Arthurian poem of love, sex, honour and magic. Beneath its medieval courtesy was an ancient battle between Summer & Winter, a struggle between the waxing & waning Moon. Gawain’s shield bears a pentangle. The pentacle or pentagram (star in the apple) signals protection, luck, creative energy & immortality. It is also the sign of the Illuminati.

Al-Khidr, the Green and Artistic Spiritual Guide (excerpt)
By : H. Talat Halman

The great 14th-century Persian poet Hafiz also received the gift of poetry from Khidr after a forty-night vigil. In Muslim tradition, Khidr is widely known as the guide of Moses and Alexander the Great, a wali (saint), a prophet, and one of four immortals. Murshid Sam described Khidr and Elijah as “the two ‘guardian spirits’ of this world and the next” (Lewis 1986: 298). Like the Qur’an’s description of Khidr’s gift of mercy (rahma) and direct inner knowing (‘ilm al-ladunni), Elijah heard God’s intimate “still small voice” (I Kg. 19:12).

Khidr and Transformation
Al-Khidr’s authority is natural, not institutional or hierarchical. What Khidr imparts is renewal and rejuvenation. The discovery of Khidr’s secret points not to something already there in nature, but to a discovery of what can be created, of what we can do next, of an ultimately alchemical transformation. For example, in 2004 when the Tsunami struck Indonesia, India, and Southeast Asia, the question for most people in its midst was not, “Why did this happen?” but rather, “What can we do now? How can we make life better? What’s possible?”

Here is the initiation of “acts of God,” the overwhelming tsunamis, the raging forest fires, the winds of hurricanes, and all of the stark reality such traumas transition us into. Henry Corbin writes: "Khidr is a ruler without a master, because it shows the truth to all the people who came.

THE GREEN MAN AND THE KING OF SALEM
October 7, 2013 by Philip Jenkins

Through Islamic history, al-Khidr has fascinated scholars and ordinary believers alike. They note that Moses treated him so respectfully, suggesting that he was very important, and perhaps a prophet, or at least a saint, a wali, a friend of God. In tradition, also, he never died, placing him in a select category limited to Idris, Ilyas and Isa (Enoch, Elijah and Jesus). In some versions, he owes this immortality to having found and drunk the Water of Life. Sufis rank him very highly as one who attained the highest levels of mystical insight.

Popular custom made al-Khidr a popular and revered figure. Across the Middle East, his shrines are (or were) much frequented, and commonly identified with the Christian St. George. In the popular imagination, both merged seamlessly with Elijah. A century ago, English archaeologist Frederick W. Hasluck wrote an important study of popular religion in the Middle East, during the last days of the Ottoman Empire. (It was published posthumously as Christianity and Islam under the Sultans (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929). Hasluck devotes a major portion of his work to the cult of al-Khidr, who was above all a patron saint of travelers. Hasluck wrote that:

the protean figure of Khidr has a peculiar interest for the study of popular religion in Asia Minor and the Near East generally. Accepted as a saint by orthodox Sunni Mohammedans, he seems to have been deliberately exploited by the heterodox Shia sects of Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Albania that is, by the Nosairi, the Yezidi, the Kizilbash, and the Bektashi for the purposes of their propaganda amongst non-Mohammedan populations. For Syrian, Greek, and Albanian Christians Khidr is identical with Elias and S. George. For the benefit of the Armenians he has been equated in Kurdistan with their favourite S. Sergius, and, just as Syrian Moslems make pilgrimages to churches of S. George, so do the Kizilbash Kurds of the Dersim to Armenian churches of St. Sergius (i, 335).

He also appears cryptically in the New Testament, in words that strongly recall the mysterious portrait of al-Khidr. The Epistle to the Hebrews notes that

This Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of peace Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life but made like unto the Son of God abideth a priest continually. Now consider how great this man was, unto whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils….. After the similitude of Melchizedek there ariseth another priest, Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life. For he testifieth, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.

Hebrews makes a similar argument to what we will later find in the Qur’an. If even a titan like Abraham (or Moses) defers to this man, how enormously powerful must he have been!

Melchizedek appears as a character in the extensive Adam mythology that circulated in early times, and which was hugely popular in the Eastern Syriac world. In the Cave of Treasures (which certainly influenced the Qur’an), he joins Noah’s son Shem in moving Adam’s body to its new site at Golgotha, under what would centuries later become the place of Jesus’s crucifixion. Shem appointed Melchizedek to carry out his priestly duties on the site forever: “Thou shalt be the priest of the Most High God, because thou alone hath God chosen to minister before Him in this place. And thou shalt sit here continually, and shalt not depart from this place all the days of thy life.” The scene is thus set for his later meeting with Abraham.

Muslim scholar al-Tabari quotes writers who placed al-Khidr in the time of Abraham, long before the days of Moses.

H ow does Kuwaiti history, myth and legend relate Alexander the Great, St. George of the Dragon and Al Khidr the "Green Man" of pre-Islamic lore to the island of Failaka, 20km from the southern promontory of Kuwait Bay?
Published: 00:00 November 15, 2004
By Nirmala Janssen, Corresponden

Seventy-three-year-old Nasrah Al Banna, a woman who was devoted to Al Khidr, told Gulf News, "Al Khidr a son of a king left the kingdom of his father and travelled everywhere.

Al Khidr who survives in legend in all Judeo-Christian religions is known alternatively as the companion of Moses and Alexander the Great, confused with St. George of the Dragon and is also according to popular tradition believed to have travelled with Jesus and was present at the ascension of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH).

Irfan Omar, Duncan Black MacDonald Center for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations. Hartford Seminary Hartford, Connecticut

From the point of view of "History of Religions" clearly Islam inherited Khidr from earlier myths and faiths, a fact recognized by the Islamic tradition which associates him with Moses and Alexander. By the Middle Ages, however, he had been thoroughly assimilated into the world of Islam and taken on a special role, symbolized by his two titles, "the Green Man" and "the Hidden Prophet". In particular, he comes to stand for a certain kind of esoteric knowledge, which can only manifest in our banal everyday life as shock, either of outrage or of laughter, or both at once.

Khidr is one of the afrad (single unique), the Unique Ones who recieve illumination directly from God without human mediation. Khiḍr is one of the four prophets whom the Islamic tradition recognizes as being ‘alive' or ‘immortal'. Khiḍr is immortal because he drank from the water of life. There are some who have asserted, however, that this Khiḍr is the same person as Elijah. He is also identified with St. George. Amongst the earliest opinions in Western scholarship, we have Rodwell's understanding where he claims that the name "Khiḍr is formed from Jethro.

Interestingly enough, there is a link here between Khiḍr and the classical Jewish legend of the ‘Wandering Jew'. Krappe, in his major work on folklore, says : it is difficult to dissociate the figure [of the Wandering Jew] from that of Al-Khiḍr, one of the Arabic prophets. .. With the crusades Europeans became familiar with this legendary figure and out of it developed the character of Ahasuerus or Isaac Laquedem.

Khiḍr had thus come to symbolize "the third path" to the knowledge of God, purely and constantly supernatural, giving acces to the divine mystery (ghayb) itself. In the writings of 'Abd al-Kartm al-Jili, Khiḍr rules over ‘the Men of the Unseen" (rijalu'l-ghayb)-- the exalted saints and angels

Haim supports and even quotes Krappe to provide the link between ‘the Wandering Jew legend' and the story of Khiḍr. On the basis of some simi­larities of occupation, Khiḍr is also identified with the prophet Jeremiah or rather it is the other way around Jeremiah is likened to Khiḍr. The nearest equivalent figure in the literature of the People of the Book is Melchizedek… In Gen. xiv. 18-20, he appears as king of Salem, priest of the Most High God…

Of myths, monsters and gods in modern Syria
By : Rita from Syria 12 February 2013

Al-Khidr for the Alawis - as well as for many other religions and sects - is one of God's righteous men capable of performing miracles. According to the Alawi creed, he never dies and lives among mankind to spread justice on earth until the end of time. He ( Al-Khidr ) has extraordinary powers like controlling thunder and lightning. The popular portrayal of Al-Khidr as "the killer of the dragon with seven heads" finds parallels with similar characters in other faiths and creeds such as Al-Mahdi Al-Montazar (the hidden Imam) for the Shia'a in Iran and Saint George for Christians . This story is mostly derived from Mesopotamian myths of fertility and the circle of life, albeit with a dash of Islamic or Christian colouring.

There were a lot of stories about Al Khidr. He was connected to Zul Qarnain the Lord of the Two Horns or Iskandar the Great. Some people said it was Maar Gerges (St. George). There are also monuments to Maar Gerges in Bahrain and Qatar. "We believed him to be a Nabi, and we respected him as a saint and as a holy person who interceded with God on our behalf. He (Al Khidr.) was the green man the symbol of fertility and in my time and the time of my mother, grandmother and great grandmother children.

By : F.W. Hasluck Christianity and Islam under the Sultans
2 vols. Oxford University Press, 1929 pp. 319-336
Chapter 2: Koranic Saints

In the region in Asia Minor Elwan ÇLelebi (Anatolia-Turkey), Khidr changed to Saint Theodore (Theodore of Amasea) as a dragon-killer. It is the only example of a proven intrusion in Turkey on the Christian cult. But in many places Khidrlik ('place of Khidr') is given to the Highland or Hill or High place (meaning high place a high position as a servant beside ALLAH) from which the Christian traditions, if there ever existed, has disappeared. Hill as it was near Angora, near Sinope on Geredeh (Krateia Bithyniae), near Changri (Gangra), near Ladik (Pontus), near Tarakli (Dablae), and in Afiun Kara Hisar. There Khidirli Dagh mountain near Kebsud, while a named Kheder Elles noted near Kula, Lydia and over Tripoli in the Black Sea, Pere de Jerphanion, Pontus new map marks a village Khedarnale ('Horseshoe of Khidr') near Sivas, which may be claimed, like Elwan Chelebi, to possess a hoof-print of the saint’s horse. Professor White Marsovan seem to find Khidrlik almost a generic name for a sacred place in the region.

from Atlantis Rising magazine of July/August 2007#64
by Mark Amaru Pinkham

In Alice Bailey and Theosophical literature he called Sanat Kumara or Raudra Chakri - Shambhala Buddhist ruler ".

According to Church Universal and Triumphant, the Sanat Kumara is the leader of mankind. It has been said that he is the leader of the Illuminati, and it is he who will rule the world in the future. According to the esoteric tradition, mystical and certain gnostic, Sanat Kumara (ageless in Sanskrit) and 144,000 inhabitants of the planet Venus came to Earth.

Sanat Kumara is the great guru, saviour of Earth. Believers see him in all the major religions, as Skanda / Murugan / Kartikeya in Hinduism, Brahma-Sanam Kumara in Buddhism, Ancient of Days in Judeo-Christianity and Ahura Mazda di Zoroastrianisme. To Muslims, Sanat Kumara is al-Khidr , the 'Green Man' of Islamic and pre-Islamic lore, the Mentor of Moses in Quraan, Hadith, and Sufi Tafsirs, and in the lore associated with Alexander the Great's Quest for the Water of Eternal Life or Elixir of life or Fountain of Youth.

In tantric lore, he is the King of Shambhala, a spiritual centre where the governing deity of earth, Sanat Kumāra / Skanda / Murugan / Kartikeya in Hinduism, Brahma-Sanam Kumara in Buddhism , dwells as the highest avatar of the planetary Logos of earth, a manifestation of the Will of God. Other name : Vishnu Krishna, The Peace of All the Earth, etc.

Jewish year 5772 and Tibetan year of Water Dragon
By : Michael Margolis (Sunday, October 23, 2011)

Synchronistic calendar harmonies are showing us the unfolding flower of a new world. The Tibetan calendar pictured here shows the Three Sarim, forms of the great Hebrew angel celestials that cause and govern the movements of the Earth globe. Imbedded in this calendar is the means for what jews call tikkun Olam (as a noun / event) the realigning of the world in more intimate connection to haShem/Source of all.

This calendar is actually like the traditional Tree of life of the mekubalim/kabbalists set on three columns and intricately interconnected. To the top left we see the image of Manjushri, the bodhisattva (angel) of wisdom / Chochmah and the planetary chief of Tzedeq / Jupiter. To the right is Rudra, the chief of the desire realm/Geburah and the planetary chief Meadim / Mars known as Vajrapani in sanskrit. In the center is Tara,the female consort of Avilokeshvara/Understanding, the planetary chief of Shabbatai/saturn (Binah as the upper mother who governs the entire wheel of time. The shift that has been prepared for for millenia is that the chief of meadim / Mars has moved to the top of the center column. This prophecy has been predicted by the ancient Tibetan teachings about the appearance of the holy city of peace called Shambhalla.

In the center of this calendar is the Kamea/Kabbalistic box of Shabbati/Saturn which is the key that connects it all together in the Omak/depth of Binah, the upper mother. The three Sarim include the mysterious one called in tibet Vajrapani, Bodhisattva of magic and power who the Jews call Eliyahu / Elijah and the Moslems call Khidr / green man.

The Tikkun is accomplished celestially and the we can see the changes happening all over the globe. The three columns to coincide with the three realms of the Book yetzira, Time (Tara) Soul (manjushri)and world / Space (Vajrapani). These are also called Karma / Saturn Dharma / Soul / Chesed-Jupiter and Kama / Desire-Mars. The angels of Kama have all been gathered in so to speak in the language of Zohar (72 solar guardians) and individuals are now newly empowered in their lives. We are now approaching the Rosh Chodesh of the month of the Holy Temple, Chesvan and the consecration of matter / space-Olam which is the column on this calendar above to the right that has shifted to the center. These are exciting days-baruch HaShem!

Khidr is Vajrapani
She (Green Tara) is therefore a female form of the "Green Man" figure who is found carved in many European churches and cathedrals, and who is found in the Islamic traditions as the figure Al-Khidr.

In his book The Shaolin Monastery (2008), Prof. Meir Shahar notes Vajrapani is the patron saint of the Shaolin Monastery. In addition, he suggests the mythical elements of the tale were based on the fictional adventures of Sun Wukong / Sun Go Kong / The Monkey King from the Chinese epic Journey to the West.

" Padmasambhava regarded as the second Buddha in Bhutan and Tibet by the followers of the Nyingma school , where he is better known as Guru Rinpoche ( " Precious Master " ). He also has called Arunagiri Babaji . Khidr and Guru Rinpoche seems like each individual human being in a way that unique , in a form suitable to the spiritual world - view of them . Therefore , on the one hand , Guru Rinpoche has many biographies as there are people on Earth . Some speculate that not only two myths of Al-Khidr "the Green man " Guru Rinpoche and the same , they actually are the same figures " .

His first representations in India were identified with the thunder deity. Buddhaghosa associated Vajrapani with the Hindu god Indra, As Buddhism expanded in Central Asia, and fused with Hellenistic influences into Greco-Buddhism, the Greek hero Heracles was adopted to represent Vajrapani. He was then typically depicted as a hairy, muscular athlete, wielding a short "diamond" club.

In Japan, Vajrapani is known as Shukongōshin (執金剛神, "Diamond rod-wielding god"), and has been the inspiration for the Niō, the wrath-filled and muscular guardian god of the Buddha, standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples under the appearance of frightening wrestler-like statues. He is also associated with Fudo-Myo, an incarnation of Acala and the prayer mantra for Fudo-Myo references him as the powerful wielder of the vajra.

Some suggest that the war deity Kartikeya, who bears the title Skanda / Murugan is also a manifestation of Vajrapani, who bears some resemblance to Skanda because they both wield the vajra and are portrayed with flaming halos. He is also connected through Vajrapani through a theory to his connection to Greco-Buddhism, as Wei Tuo's image is reminiscent of the Heracles depiction of Vajrapani.

Khidr is Elijah
Elijah (Arabic: إلياس or إليا Ilyas or Ilya) is also mentioned as a prophet in the Qur'an. Elijah's narrative in the Qur'an and later Muslim tradition resembles closely that in the Hebrew Bible and Muslim literature records Elijah's primary prophesying as taking place during the reign of Ahab and Jezebel as well as Ahaziah. He is seen by Muslims to be the prophetic predecessor to Elisha. While neither the Bible nor the Qur'an mentions the genealogy of Elijah, some scholars of Islam believe he may have come from the priestly family of the prophet Aaron. Elijah in Muslim theology is very rarely associated with the events of the eschaton, as he is in Jewish tradition, and Islam views Jesus as the Messiah. Elijah's figure has, however, been identified with a number of other prophets and saints, including Idris, which is believed by some scholars to have been another name for Elijah, and Khidr. Islamic legend later developed the figure of Elijah, greatly embellishing upon his attributes, and some apocryphal literature gave Elijah the status of a half-human, half-angel. Elijah also appears in later works of literature, including the Hamzanama.


Khidr or St George of dying in a state of Islam : The Half Turkish, Half Palestinian Patron
Oh, and of course England.
It is one of those strange ironies that the patron Saint of England is half Turkish and half Palestinian. That he has become an emblem of the English nation despite his “foreign blood” is deeply symbolic given current debates on belonging. In this special feature on St. George, emel looks at the man, what he means to people here and abroad, and why he is the perfect patron for Britain today.

Words: Sarah Joseph & Remona Aly Additional Reporting: Tamanna Rehman & Halima Ali

The St George’s flags will fly high as we head towards Germany with the dream of ending the 40 year gap without any World Cup silverware. Major football tournaments have a knack of bringing people together as we grip onto hope - right up until some dreadful penalty shoot-out. Even then we commiserate together. But are football tournaments the only occasions we can come together? The cry to find “the glue that binds us” gets louder, as do the demands for national days, citizenships tests and insistence on a more concrete idea of ‘Britishness’.

Many would argue that only the fuzzy demarcation lines of Britishness have allowed the four nations to be together. But is there a way to unite people that allows for our historic multiculturalism and yet has strength and integrity for the present and future? Sometimes looking at the history of our national emblems and symbols can give key insights into how we have imbued much from far away and made it our own – for example, the rose, the Christian faith and, of course, St George.

St George was born in Cappadocia, in modern day Turkey to an army soldier and a mother from Lydda, now known as Lod in Palestine. After his father’s death, George’s mother took her infant son back to her home town of Lydda where he grew up to serve as an officer in the Roman army, like his father before him. When ordered by a pagan ruler, the Emperor Diocletian, to pay tribute to Roman gods, he refused and faced prolonged periods of torture – in some stories as long as seven years, ending with a gruesome death: sliced in half and beheaded.

From this rather grisly end he has become a hero and a national icon for many. From Canada to Moscow, Boy Scouts to saddle makers, Palestine to England, he is celebrated the world over. In England, he is celebrated on 23rd April. A day, like the man himself, borrowed from the East. In Turkey, 23rd April is called the Feast of Lydda, observed throughout Turkey as the beginning of spring.

George’s death occurred around the fourth century AD, some 300 years before the last prophet of Islam completed the Message of God to His creation with the Qur’an. Thus as a true follower of monotheism Muslims regard him as dying in a state of submission to the One Creator. Or in Arabic – of dying in a state of Islam. As such, George has acquired status as a Muslim martyr. Muslims across the Middle East have traditionally associated George with Al Khidr, literally ‘the Green One’, signifying wisdom that is ever fresh and imperishable. Al Khidr is described in the Qur’an as a mystical boat companion of Moses, and even though Moses’ time was centuries earlier, the linking of George to this Qur’anic personality has held the imagination, and the similarity of title has meant the two figures have become entwined.

According to tradition, George often prayed near the Temple Mount in Jerusalem where an elongated mosque named Qubbat Al-Khidr is dedicated to him. Located within the terraced site of the Dome of the Rock, George’s shrine in Palestine came to be a place of pilgrimage for Christians and Muslims seeking out its special healing powers. Women visited the site in hope of conceiving, while those with health complaints would go there for miraculous cures. Many other sites throughout the Islamic world resound with Al-Khidr, one of the most notable being the great Beirut mosque of Al-Khidr that lies close to where George legendarily slayed the dragon, saved a princess and caused the whole city to convert to Christianity.

Anthony Cooney, author of the books, The Story of St George and Saint George: Knight of Lydda, commented on George as a “man for all people”, not being confined to one country or a single cause. Cooney finds that George’s appeal to Muslims is not something that should be treated as strange. “St George is an ecumenical saint. He is not just for one nation he is patron saint of many, making him pretty universal. One main reason for Muslims revering him over time is that he was martyred for refusing to give divine honours to idols, and as such is delivered up as a staunch monotheist.” Many accounts have George destroying idols in the temple of Apollo, a story that resounds remarkably with the account of Abraham smashing the idols in his time. Although there are some voices of dissent regarding his martyrdom status, according to Cooney there is a “tremendous amount of evidence”, which can leave us in no doubt of the years of torture he endured and his subsequent death.

The spread of St George’s cult around the world in places such as Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Istanbul, Greece, Germany and Portugal to name a few, accounts for, in Cooney’s words, the ‘universality of the cult’. Thousands of narratives and images of St George have circulated throughout history and many lands, with references in Ibn Battuta’s travel journal and even modern day allusions such as William Dalrymple’s, From the Holy Mountain. The cult of St George journeyed from the East to English shores before the 11th century, spreading from other European countries.

It was strengthened in the 14th century when Edward III established a fraternity, choosing George as the patron saint of his ‘Order of the Garter’ as a spiritual focus for military endeavours during the 100 Years War against France. George was also a great favourite with Henry VIII who issued a coin depicting George slaying the dragon, in the 16th century. There is evidence of the saint being in pageants in Dublin and Scotland, but his popularity was concentrated in the south and east of England through countless plays and pageants.

The patronage of St George has not always been used for such celebratory purposes. Armies in the Crusades killed tens of thousands under his banner. A Church in Devon has an image of him spearing Saracens. And in 1975, the League of St George was founded. It is an organisation hostile to immigrants and one that warned of the ‘threat’ posed to Britain’s national identity from immigration. The BNP use the flag of St George to champion their call for an England for the “English”. Little could be more ironic.

It is these associations with St George that detracts many Muslims in Britain from celebrating him. Sulaiman Choudhury, a City worker from Brighton recently came across a group of BNP protestors. “Loud music blared from megaphones, bolstered by angry chanting in a menacing manner. Unfortunately they were holding the red and white flag of St George. It is this connotation of the flag that comes to many people’s minds all too frequently. They have hijacked this symbol.”

He, though, is informed about St George’s parentage and can see the irony and believes St George is a potential role model. “St George is a great symbol of courage, compassion and acceptance. If we could discuss the history and the context of when the man lived and how he is remembered and celebrated in so many diverse countries, he would be an invaluable asset to any community.”

Others agree, Ahmed Thomson, a barrister and born on St. George’s day, says, “He was martyred in Palestine because he was a monotheist. It is clear therefore that any true follower of St. George should be opposed to the race and religious discrimination which certain members of the BNP so blatantly display.”

How and why a nation chooses its patron saint is often a strange matter, and even those who might not sign up to the full blown celebrations on April 23rd still seem to admire St George. According to Daniel Baker, a furniture installer from Dagenham, George is a saint “not because of where he was from, but because of what he stood for and what he did when he was alive.”

Hannah Mummery, a policy and research manager from Kent concurs. “It is about the way we see ourselves as a nation and the values we want to uphold. When picking a patron in any walk of life we want to see them reflecting the values we aspire to and hold dear. I suppose St George does just this, whether you see the mythical dragon slayer who sacrificed himself to save the life of a beautiful woman or the humble Palestinian soldier who died defending his faith – both St Georges reflect an aspiration – selflessness, bravery, faith, courage and a commitment to what you believe to be right. All fine values for a nation to aspire to.”

Maybe the fine values of St George are what can bring us all together. Certainly, as a saint connected with healing, he can be taken as a symbol to heal the divide amongst communities. He can surely be looked to as an example of religious and racial pluralism. With his mixed ethnicity and his multiple identities he encompasses many of today’s battle lines. Maybe the dragon of arrogance, ignorance and prejudice can be slayed under the banner of St George. And with his impeccable monotheistic credentials, Muslims shouldn’t hesitate in holding up his banner.

Yazdânism
Most non-Muslim Kurds follow one of several indigenous Kurdish faiths of great antiquity and originality, each of which is a variation on and permutation of an ancient religion that can loosely be labeled the "Cult of Angels," Yazdâni in Kurdish. The actual name of the religion is all but lost to its modern followers, who retain only the names of its surviving denominations. The name Yazdânism or Cult of Angels is a variation of the Kurdish name of one of its isolated branches, Yezidism, which literally means "the Anglicans." There are some indications that Yazdânism was in fact the name of the religion before its fragmentation. An even older name for this creed may have been Hâk (or Haq), which is the name given by this religion to its pre-eternal, all-encompassing deity, the Universal Spirit. A brief argument in favor of the former view is presented in this section under Yezidism.

Only three branches of the Cult of Angels have survived from ancient times. They are Yezidism, Alevism, and Yârsânism (also known as Aliullâhi or Ahl-i Haq). Alevism now also encompasses Nusayrism, which is followed primarily by a minority of Arabs in Syria and most of the Arab minority in Turkey.

All denominations of the Cult, past and present, hold a fundamental belief in luminous, angelic beings of ether, numbering seven, that protect the universe from an equal number of balancing dark forces of matter. Another shared belief, and a cornerstone of the Cult, is the belief in the transmigration of souls through numerous reincarnations, with reincarnations of the deity constituting major and minor avatars.

The Cult believes in a boundless, all encompassing, yet fully detached "Universal Spirit" (Haq), whose only involvement in the material world has been his primeval manifestation as a supreme avatar who after coming into being himself, created the material universe. (Haq, incidentally, is not derived from the Arabic homophone haqq, meaning "truth," as commonly and erroneously believed.) The Spirit has stayed out of the affairs of the material world except to contain and bind it together within his essence. The prime avatar who became the Creator is identified as the Lord God in all branches of the Cult except Yezidism, as discussed below. Following or in conjunction with the acts of creation, the Creator also manifested himself in five additional avatars (Bâbâ or Bâb, perhaps from the Aranlaic bâbâ, "portal" or "gate"), who then assumed the position of his deputics in maintaining and administering the creation. These are the archangels, who with the Creator and the ever-present Spirit, number the sacred Seven of the First Epoch of the universal life. This epoch was to be followed by six more, a new epoch occurring each time the soul or essence of the avatars of the previous epoch transmigrates into new avatars, to again achieve with the Spirit the holy number 7. Following these original seven epoches and major avatars, new, bur minor, avatars may emerge from time to time. However, their importance is limited, as are their contributions, to the time period in which they live.

In this century three individuals have risen to the station of Bâb, or "avatar": Shaykh Ahmad Bârzâni (supposedly a Muslim), Sulaymân Murshid (a Syrian Arab Alevi) (see Modern History), and Nurali llâhi (a Yârsân leader). Their impact, however, has been ephemeral. This was not the case with another avatar who appeared a century earlier.

In the 19th century, Mirzâ Ali Muhammad, now commonly known as The Bâb, rose to establish the religion of Bâbism, which soon evolved into the world religion of Bâhâ'ism. The religion spread at the same wild-fire pace as Mithraism in classical times, from the Persian Gulf to Britain in less than a century's time (see Bâbism & Bâhâ'ism).

The rites and tenets of the Cult have traditionally been kept secret from non-believing outsiders, even when followers were not subject to persecution. In the present century an appreciable number of the scriptures of various branches of the Cult of Angels have been studied and published, allowing for better understanding of the nature of this native Kurdish religion, as well as the extent of its contribution to other religions.

The Cult is a genuinely universalist religion. It views all other religions as legitimate manifestations of the same original idea of human faith in the Spirit. The founders of these religions are examples of the Creator's continuous involvement in world affairs in the form of periodic incarnations as a new prophet who brings salvation to the living. Thus, a believer in the Cult has little difficulty being associated with Islam, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, or any other religion, as to him these are all just other versions of the old idea. He also has little difficulty in passing as a follower of any one of these religions if need be. Other religions that view themselves as unique systerns of approach to the divinity, with an exclusive monopoly on truth, are viewed as unique as the images in a kaleidoscopc: they are unique only in the configuration of their elements, but are all identical in that the elements that are involved in forming each image were supplied by the Creator at the moment of the universal Genesis of the material world. Hinduism and its similar cosmopolitan approach to other religions come readily to mind.

Meanwhile, the Cult has always been apt to absorb other religions, whole or in part, that have come into contact with it. To do so, new branches of the Cult have formed by incorporating into their dynamic cosmogonies system of continuing avatars the highest personages of these externat religions. Alevism, for instance, was formed in the process of the Cult's movement to swallow Shi'ite Islam beginning in the 15th century. Such movements, which recur throughout the history of the Cult, should not be interpreted as organized and sinister efforts directed by a central, priestly body in the Cult. Far from it, the Cult as a whole could not have been any more indifferent to such events. These movements were all spontaneous creations of various segments of the followers of the Cult who through intensive exposure to an outside religion would in time adopt and adapt enough of it to be able to pass as insiders, raise a messianic scepter, and try to overtake that neighboring religion.

Several old, and now extinct, movements and religions also appear to have begun their existence as branches of the Cult of Angels, under circumstances similar to those that gave rise to Alevism. Among these, with due caution and reservation, one may place the Gnostic religions of Mithraism and Zorvânism, and the socioeconomically motivated messianic movements of the Mazdakites, Khurramiyya, and the Qarmatites. The Cult also has fundamentally influenced another Gnostic religion, Manichacism, as well as Ismâ'ili (Sevener) Shi'ism, Druzism, and Bâbism, and to a lesser extent, Zoroastrianism, Imâmi Shi'ism, and Bahâ'ism. The Mithraist religious movement seems now to have been a guise under which Cult followers attempted to take over the old Greco-Roman pantheistic religion, with which the Cult had been in contact since the start of the Heffenistic period in the 4th century BC. Mithraism succeeded impressively. By the time of Constantine and the prevalencc of Christianity, Mithraism had become so influential in the Roman Empire that it may be that the Roman state observance of the birth of the god Mithras on December 25 inspired the traditional dating of the birth of Christ. This date was the one on which the Universal Spirit first manifested itself in its prime avatar, Lord Creator, whom Mithraism presumed to be Mithras.

The Yezidi branch of the Cult of Angels, and the Nusayri movement within Alevism, still retain vestiges of this primary position of Mithras, particularly in their festivals and annual communal religious observations.

Despite the shrinking of its earlier domain and loss of ground to Islam, the Cult still influences all the Kurds at the levels of popular culture and quasi-religious rituals. The reverence for Khidir or Nabi Khizir "the living green man of the ponds," is a well-accepted practice among the Muslim Kurds. Khidir's shrines are found all over Kurdistan beside natural springs (see Folklore &Folk Tales). The Muslims have connected the lore of Khidir to that of the Prophet Elijah, who like Khidir, having drank from the Fountain of Life, is also ever-living. An earth and water spirit, the immortal Khidir (whose name might mean "green" or a "crawler") lives within the deep waters of the lakes and ponds. Assuming various guises, Khidir appears among the people who call upon him to grant them their wishes.

Many communal and religious ceremonies belonging to various faiths of the Kurds take place at Khidir's shrines, which are a transreligious institution (see Popular Culture and Festivals, Ceremonies, & Calendar). Khidir's longevity is symbolized in the longevous pond turtles found at the ponds and springs where his shrines are located. As such, realistic, but more often stylized, turtles are common motifs in Kurdish decorative and religious arts (see Decorative Designs & Motifs). The feast of Khidir falls in the spring, when nature renews itself. The exact observation date, however, varies from religion to religion, and even community to community. All branches of the Cult observe the feast, as do many Muslim commoners.

In ancient times the Cult came to be regarded as a contender to the ascendancy of early Zoroastrianism. This must have been before the end of the Median period, and the movement to overtake Zoroastrianism was perhaps sponsored by the last Median ruler, Rshti-vegâ Äzhi Dahâk (r. 584-549 BC). There is now compelling evidence that the slaying of Zoroaster himself and the overthrowing of his patron king Vishtaspa were at the hands of the troops of King Rshti-vegâ Âzhi Dahâk, as he advanced eastward into Harirud-Murghâb river basins in northwest Afghanistan in 552 BC. This did not help Äzhi Dahâk's reputation among the early Zoroastrians.The Median king Äzhi Dahâk has since been assigned a demonic character and is seen as the arch villain in both Zoroastrianism and the Iranian national mythology and epic literature, like the Shâhnâma. In fact, Azhdahâ has become the only word in the Persian language for "dragon." The controversial title Âzhi Dahâk for the last Median king was already known to Herodotus, albeit in a corrupted form, as Astyages.

A lasting legacy of this encounter between the two religions was the Cult's introduction of a hereditary priestly class, the Magi, into the simpler, priestless religion that Zoroaster had founded.

Zoroastrianism and the Cult of Angels share many features, among which are the belief in seven good angels and seven "bad" ones in charge of the world, and a hereditary priestly class. These common features are natural results of the long and eventful contact between the two religions. Other common features may be the result of the religious imprint of the Aryan settlers of Kurdistan, whose original religion must have been the same as that which the Prophet Zoroaster later reformed and reconstituted into the religion of Zoroastrianism. In its present form, however, the Cult shows the greatest mutuality with Islam, which has been its neighbor for the past 14 centuries. Nearly a thousand years after the first attempt on Zoroastrianism, followers of the Cult made another, less successful, bid to take over, or eliminate, Zoroastrianism. This was in the form of the Mazdakite movement.

The cult or movement of Mazdak rose in the Sth century AD in response to the rigid social and economic class system instituted by the Zoroastrian state religion of Sasanian Persia. The movement spread out from the Zagros region led by a native son, Mazdak, who eventually even succeeded in converting the Sasanian king Kavât or Qubâd (r. AD 488-53 1).

The Mazdakites' fundamental belief in the social equality of people, still largely present in the Cult of Angels, gave this religion special attraction to the poor and the objects of discrimination. Mazdak (whose name may mean "lesser Mazdâ," with Mazdâ being the shortened form for the name of the Zoroastrian supreme god Ahurâ Mazdâ), preached communal ownership of many worldly possessions, and was accused of having included women in this same category-an accusation of sexual promiscuity still levied on the Cult of Angels.

The practice of communal ownership has prompted many modern writers to flamboyantly brand the cult of Mazdak as the first world communist system (see Classical History). In this religion was also embedded a militancy that continued to manifest itself in several socioreligious movements in the Islamic era, and indirectly through the militant Shi'ism of modern times.

Despite, or perhaps because of, their earlier successes, the Mazdakites were soon subjected to widespread massacres towards the end of Kavât's rule ca. AD 528 (as he had by then reverted to Zoroastrianism). Under the rule of Kavât's son and successor, Chosroes I Anoshervân, pogroms were extended to all corners of the country, prompting the king soon to declare them all destroyed. Far from being destroyed, the movement resurfaced, albeit fragmented, after the destruction of the staunchly Zoroastrian Sasanian Persian Empire. Mazdak remains one of the two patron saints of the populous Khushnow Kurdish tribe in central Kurdistan (Sykes 1908, 457).

Muslim rulers in their turn had to face and put down successiva waves of economically driven messianic religious movements originating in this same area of Jibâl (Arabic for "[Zagrosl mountains," i.e., old Media). The most important movement, that of the Khurramiyya, was led by religious and military leader Bâbak. The Khurramiyya believed in transmigration of souls, especially those of their leaders and religious figures. Bâbak and his followers, like Mazdak and the Mazdakites earlier, were known for their practice of communal ownership of all properties and means of economic production, and lack of social distinctions.

Simultaneously with Bâbak, whose headquarters were among the migrant Kurdish tribes in Azerbaijan, a Kurd named Nârseh (known to the medieval Muslim historien Mas'udi as "Nasir the Kurd"), led a Khurrami uprising in southern Kurdistan (the heartland of the Cult of Angels), which was finally put down under the 'Abbâsid caliph Mu'tasim. Muslim historien Tabari reports that about 60,000 of Nârseh's followers were killed by the Muslims, forcing the rest, along with Nârseh, to flee into the Byzantine Empire in AD 833 (see Medieval History).

The hallmark of the Mazdakites and the Khurramis was their use of the color red for their banners and clothing. They were thus called the Surkhalamân, "the people of red banners," or Surkhjâmagân, "the people of red cloths." This signature reappeared in the 14th and 15th centuries in another movement from among the followers of the Cult, when the Alevis came to be called the Qizilbâsh, or "the red heads," from their red headgear (see Alevism and Medieval History).

After its suppression under the early 'Abbâsid caliphs, an offshoot of Khurramiyya appeared in southern Iraq and later in Lahsâ or Ahsâ (modern Al-Ahsâ in eastern Saudi Arabia). These were called the Qarmatites, and shared with the parent movement the ideals of socioeconomic equality, as well as its cosmogony and theology. The medieval Ismâ'ili traveller Nâsir Khusraw records such practices of the inhabitants of Lahsâ as communal owi-iersffip of property and pointing to the connection between the old Mazdakite movement and Qarmatism. A hotbed of "schism," Lahsâ remains a predominantly non-Sunni region in the otherwise fanatically Sunni Saudi Arabia. The population is now reported to be mainstream Imâmi Sffi'ite, which may well turn out to be the same kind of inaccurate generalisation as that which classified the Cult of Angels itself as a Shi'ite Muslim sect.

In the 15th century, Muhammad Nurbakhsh, whose Sufi movement turned out to closely parallel the tenets of the Cult of Angels (see Sufi Mystic Orders), came from Lahsâ. In the early 19th century, another mystic from Lahsâ, Shaykh Ahmad Lahsâ'i, moved to Persia to lay the foundations for the Bâbi movement of the middle of the 19th century. A socioeconomic, messianic movement with striking similarities to the old Mazdakite movement, the ideas of Shaykh Ahmad (which were popularized by AliMuhammad Bâb), on which it was based, share at 12ast as much with the Cult of Angels as did the Nurbakhshi movement (see Bâbism & Bahâism).

All branches of the Cult, from the Mazdakites to the modern-day Alevis, have been commonly accused of sexual promiscuity. The Muslims believe they share their women at their communal religious gatherings. Even today the fiction of this notorious ceremony (called mum söndii, "candie blown out" in Anatolia, or chirâgh kushân, "killing of the lights" in Iran) is used by the Cult's Muslim neighbors to demean its followers. The accusation is levied against many other religious minorities connected in various ways to the Cult of Angels, such as the Ismâ'ilis in Afghanistan (Canfield 1978), the Alevis of Turkey (Yalman 1969) and Syria, and the Druze of the Levant (Eickelman 1981). Oddly, even scholars of the stature of Henry Rawlinson, Macdonald Kinnier, and G.R. Driver chose to believe rumors of this ceremony. Driver compares it with the oriental Bona Dea at Rome, and declares it even more shatneless (Driver 1921-23). Rawlinson states that, although he did not believe it was still practiced in his time (1836), he thought it had been until half a century earlier. He further adds that it must have been the remnant of the ancient worship of fertihty deities found in the cults of Mithra and Anahita, and also in the cult of Sesostris, which practiced the worship of genitalia. Kinnier claimed to have witnessed, if not actually participated in, one in 1818.

The followers of all branches of the Cult of Angels have ritual gatherings called lam, Âyini lam, or Jamkhâna (spelled (7emhane in Turkey), in a designated enclosure where holy scripture is recited, religious masters speak, and community bonds are renewed by the shaking of hands of all those present. Social equality is demonstrated by the forbidding of any hierarchical scating arrangements. The gatherings are closed to nonbelievers for fear of persecution, and the secrecy enshrouding the ceremony may have been the cause of the myth of communal sexual improprieties. The fact that women now are forbidden even to enter the Jamkhâna by some 6ranches of the Yârsân is a reaction to these accusations, even though it runs against the grain of Kurdish society and its traditionauy high status of women (see Status of Women & Family Ufe).

The minor Jam ceremonies occur once every seven days. The all-important major Jam occurs once a year, at different times for different branches of the cult, as discussed under their entries below.

In the Islamic era the religion has influenced and been influenced by many branches of Islam, particularly by the Shi'ism of the lmâmi (Twelver) and the Isma'ili (Sevener) sects. The most important and lasting contribution of the Cult of Angels to Islam, however, came at the time of the Qara Qoyunlu dynasty of eastern Anatolia and western Iran (1380-1468), as well as during the formative carly decades of the Safavid dynasty, beginning in AD 1501. The dynasty's founder, Ismâ'il 1, had strong Alevi sentiments, and in fact claimed to be an avatar of the Divinity. He is still revered by the Alevis as such, and as a Sâhabi Zamân, a living "Time Lord." It took many generations of Safavid endeavor to adjust to, and largely expunge, the elements of the Cult of Angels from their original religion. They did succeed, however, and the traditional, standard Imâmi Shi'ite Islam has since dominated Persia/lran. Nonetheless, every impartial report concerning the faith and practices of the carly Safavids points toward the Cult of Angels (Alevism in particular), and not Shi'ite Islam, as their religion.

To distinguish themselves from these non-Muslim "infidels," the mainstream lmâmi Shi'ites began from the start of the 16th century to refer to themselves as Ja'fari (after the 6th Shi'ite imam, Ja'far al-Sâdiq), instead of by their earlier, and cherished, title: the Shi'a. Shi'ites short for shiat al-'Ali, is Arabic for "the party of Ali," Muhammad's son-in-law. Convinced that the names Alevi and Aliullâhi, Gy which these non-Muslim Kurds, and later Turkmens and Arabs, called themselves, are derived from the name of imam Ali (a notion fortified by the semi-deification of Ali, as one of the most important carthly avatars of the Universal Spirit, by two out of three branches of the Cult of Angels), the lmârni Shi'ites opted for the less-than-desirable, but safer title of lafari. By the time of the fall of the Safavids III 1720, this had become the almost exclusive title observed by mainstream Shi'ites, so real was their fear of association and confusion with the manifestly non-Muslim Alevis and Aliullâhis. To their chagrin, some Alevis in Anatolia began to embrace the name lafari in the 2Oth century, and have reported themselves as such to the Turkish census takers (see Table 5, Remarks).

The ability of the Cult to adapt and absorb alien religions through its belief in the transmigration and reincarnation of souls again reminds one of Hinduism. Indian Buddhism was absorbed by Hinduism when the latter declared Buddha to be yet another, albeit important, avatar of the Spirit, just as Vishnu, Shiva, and Rama are. Some Hindus did unsuccessfully claim such status for the Prophet Muhammad as well.

The "high-jacking" of Ali and Muhammad for a while seemed to have given the Cult the means it needed to absorb Shi'ite Islam from the beginning of the 15th century to the time of the Ascension of Abbâs the Great on the Safavid throne in AD 1588. His enthusiastic sponsorship of the mainstream lmâmi Shi'ite theologians, attracted from as far away as Medina, Lebanon, Mesopotamia, and Khurâsân, finally blew away the smoke screen of Ali-worship by the Cult of Angels. Abbâs' Islamic scholars codified and strictly delineated lmâmi Shi'ism within its traditional boundarics prior to the Cult's offensiva. The most important of these Shi'ite theologians, Allâma Majlisi, goes to great lengths to danin the followers of the Cult of Angels in his seminal treatise upholding traditional Shi'ism, Bihâr al-Anwâr. Despite all this, Shi'ism in its modern form bears the influence of the Cult in its rituals, specifically those that are considered the most offensive and unorthodox by the Sunnis. After all, it was under the sharp and punishing pressure of the Qara Qoyunlu and the carly Safavids (i.e., in their "Alevi period") that most Muslims of Iran and the Caucasus were converted from Sunnism. The later reforms and introduction of traditional Shi'ism after the 17th century never succeeded in doing away with the imprint of the Cult of Angels on the common practice of the religion. The Cult survives today in the radicalism, economic and social egalitarianism, and martyr syndrome of Iranian and Caucasian Shi'ism, but not so much of Iraqi Shi'ism. The inhabitants of what is now Iraq were mostly Shi'ite before the arrival of the revolutionary Alevis out of Anatolia and never converted to Alevism. Iraq was not, however, left unaffected by the Cult. It was another branch of the Cult, Yârsânism that had more peacefully been influencing Mesopotamia since the early days of Islam.

In words once interpreted as slander, but that now appear to have been true, the famous 15th century Sunni theologian, Sufi master, and poet, Abdul-Rahmân Muhammad Jâmi (in the Rashahât

i Jâmi) refers clearly to the "Shi'ites" he encounters in Baghdad as the 11 people of Dun ba Dun" (a fundamental relioous tenet of the Cult, denoting continuous reincarnation of the soul see Yârsânism). Jâmi habitually respects the traditionalshi'ite Mushms of central Asia and his home province of Khurâsân. His great antagonism toward the "Shi'ites" of the western Middle East, including Baghdad, is demonstrated by his adamant refusal to call them Shi'ites, but instead Râfidi, i.e., "the apostates." This and the similarly hostile reception of western Shi'ism by the Sunni theologians of eastern Islamdom (who well tolerated traditional lmâmi Shi'ism), occurred at a time when the Cult of Angels was busily absorbing traditional Islamic Shi'ism.

The Shi'ite beliefs in many saints, the messiah, a living Sâhib al-Zamâm, "Time Lord," and the like, all naturally appeal to the followers of the Cult of Angels. The Cult embraces all such notions, except that of a messiah to come at the end of the world. It has not, therefore, been difficult for them to pass themselves off as Shi'ites if need be. Even today, some branches of the Cult of Angels comfortably declare themselves bona fide Shi'ite Muslims, despite the fact that their fundamental beliefs clash with the principles of Islam as set forth in the Koran.

The Cult contains an impressive body of cosmogonical and eschatological literature, which is best preserved in the Yârsân branch, and is discussed under Yârsânism. The number 7 is sacred in this religion, and is the number of heavens, the number of luminous angels (as well as of their opposing dark forces of matter), the number of major avatars of the Universal Spirit, the number of epochs in the life of the material world, and the number of venerable families that maintain a hereditary priestly office in the religion. At the heart of number 7 also lies another, more sacred but less often employed, number: 3, which denotes things pertaining to the almighty himself. These numbers of course are sacred, more or less, in many other religions and disciplines of Middle Eastern origin as well. We need only remember the Trinity in Christianity, and the veneration of the number 7 in traditional astrology. What is missing from the Cult of Angels is the veneration of the number 12, which is sacred to Judaism> Christianity, and Islam (e.g., 12 tribes of Israel, apostles of Christ, Shi'ite imams).

Fasting requirements in this religion are limited to three days' while prayers are required only on the occasion of the communal gathering of Jamkhâna. Dietary laws vary from denomination to denomination, but are lax, or rather vague, at best. Alcohol and ham, for example, are often permitted because they are not directly prohibited in the scripture.

The Cult is fundamentally a non-Semitic religion, with an Aryan superstructure overlaying a religious foundation indigenous to the Zagros. To identify the Cult or any of its denominations, as Islamic is a simple mistake, born of a lack of knowledge of the religion, which pre-dates Islam by millennia. Even though there has been strong mutual impact of the Alevi and Yârsân branches of the Cult and Shi'ite Islam, it is equally a mistake to consider these branches as Shi'ite Muslim sects, or vice versa.

The causes of this common mistake are several, but most important is the high station of Ali, the first Muslim Shi'ite imam, in both Yârsânism and Alevism. Through the elevation of Ali to status of primary avatar of the Spirit, Alevism and Yârsânsim have earned the title Aliullâhi (those who deify Ali) from their Muslim neighbors. The ongoing practice of religious dissimulation-like the Muslim taquiyah-has been also an important factor in confusing outsiders. The Cult's past attempts to absorb Shi'ism thro'ugh pretensions of a shared identity have also confused many a hapless historian. As extremist Shi'ites, or ghulât, was how the embarrassed Muslim neighbors of the followers of the Cult used to identify them. Today, if asked, most Muslims would readily call Cult followers (with the exception of the Yezidis) Shi'ite Muslims of a "peculiar" kind.

The dwindling number of followers of the Cult over the past 4 centuries, coupled with the religious dissimulation of their leaders, who have openly and persistently called the Cult a Shi'ite Muslim sect, have relegated the question to the realm of unimportance for Muslims. The exception is, perhaps, the Kurdish Muslims themselves, whose persecution of Cult followers in the 19th and early 2Oth centuries Was instigated by the fame- and follower-seeking, demagogue Muslim mullahs. These Muslims alone have kept up the pressure on Cult members (see Early Modern history)

Unlike many major religions, the Cult facks a divinely inspired, sin le holy book. In fact the avatars of the fact such a book would have been out of place, given the multiplicity of the avatars of the Spirit, and the fact that revelation and reincarnation are an on-going affair in this regenerative religion. Instead there are many venerated scriptures, produced at various dates, in various languages, and covering various themes by holy figures in the Cult. In fact Nurali llâhi, himself a minor avatar and the author of the most recent "holy scripture," the Burhân (see Yârsânism), passed on in 1975. Lack of a single holy book has not by any means hindered the Cult from developing a most impressive cosmogony, catechizes, eschatology, and liturgy, which are shared with minor variations in all denominations of the Cult to this day.

Good and evil are believed by the Cult to be equally important and fundamental to the creation and continuation of the material world. The good Angels, are therefore, as venerable as the bad ones, if one may call them so. In fact, without this binary opposition the world would not exist. Cold exists on] y because there is also its opposite, warm up is what it is only because there is also down. Good would cease to exist if evil ceased to balance its existence. "Knowledge" and "awareness" in man exist only because good and evil exist in equal force, to be used as points of reference by man to comprehend and balance his being. Good, traditionally represented by the symbol of a dog and evil by the symbol of a serpent, join each other in a dog-headed serpent to represent the embodiment of the act of world creation: the mixture of ether and matter, good and evil, and all other opposites that make up this world. Some reports by European travellers of the late 19th and early 2Oth centuries regarding the veneration of dogs by the Alevis, if true, may point to worship of the symbol of good, since there is plenty of evidence of veneration of the symbol of the serpent (and hence evil) in the Yezidi arts, particularly at their shrines in Lâlish (see Yezidism).

The symbol of a dog-headed serpent finds its precedent in the Kurdish art of the Mannaean period of the 9th century BC. Side-by-side representation of the dog and serpent symbols is already well-known through the ancient Mithraic temple art from England to Iran.

The Cult does not believe in a physical hell or heaven, filled with devils or angels to come at the end of time. The horrors of hell and pleasures of paradise take place in this world as people reincarnate after death into a life of bounty and health or conversely into one of misery and destitution, depending on the nature of the life they lived within their previous body. At the end of time, however, only the righteous and complete "humans" who succeed in crossing the tricky bridge of final judgment (Perdivari) will join the eternity of the Universal Spirit. The failed souls will be annihilated along with the material world forever.

The Cult's belief in the figurative nature of hell and heaven is shared prominently by many Sufi orders, but particularly those that have come under the influence of the Cult (see Sufi Mystic Orders).

In addition to their attempt to absorb Shi'ite Islam, in the past thousand years, the followers of the Cult of Angels went through a period of successful proselytization of the Turkmens of Anatolia and the Arabs of the Levantine coasts of the eastern Mediterranean. There are also notable groups of Azeris, Gilânis, and Mâzandarânis who follow the Cult (Table 5).

It must be noted, however, that not all non-Kurdish followers of the various branches of this religion are just foreign converts. While most non-Kurdish followers of the Alevi branch of the Cult in Anatolia are actually Turkmen converts, the Arabs of the southern Amanus mountains and the Syrian coastal regions are in large part assimilated Kurds who inhabited the region in the medieval period. The same is true of the followers of the Cult in Azerbaijan, and in Gilân and Mâzandarân on the Caspian Sea, most of whom are the descendants of assimilated Kurds who have lost all traces of their former ethnic identity short of this religion (see Historical Migrations and Integration & Assimilation). The multilingualism of the sacred works of this religion may be the result of a desire to communicate with these ethnically metamorphosed followers of the Cult, and to convey the Word to all interested people in the tongue most native to them. This practice is also found in the Manichaean (now extinct), Druze, and Ismâ'ili religions, all of which have had strong past contact with the Cult of Angels.

In the past the religion has also lost major communities of adherents: almost all the Lurs have gone over to mainstream Shi'ite Islam, while the population in Kurdistan itself has become primarily Sunni Muslim. The Laks are fast following the suit of the Lurs. This religious change seems almost always to parallel a change in language and lifestyle among the affected Kurds. The Lurs went from various dialects of Gurâni Kurdish to Persian, an evolved form of which they still speak today. Most of the agriculturalist Kurdish followers of the Cult of Angels switched from Pahlawâni to Kurmânji and its dialects when converting to Islam. Except for the Mukri regions around the town of Mahâbâd, the area now dominated by the South Kurmânji dialect of Sorâni (see Language) was a domain of Yârsânism and the Gurâni dialect until about three centuries ago (see Historical Migrations), while the domain of North Kurmânji was primarily that of the Dimilj language and Alevi faith until the 16th century.

At the turn of the century, 33-40% of all Kurds followed this old religion. The proportion of the followers of the Cult converting to Islam has slowed down in this century, and now about 30-35% of all Kurds follow various branches of the Cult. More statistics are provided below under relevant denominations of the Cult.

The followers of the Cult have been the primary targets of missionary work, particularly Christian. Christian missionaries 'began work in Kurdistan on various denominations of the Cult as early as the 18th century. These produced the earliest Kurdish dictionaries, along with some of the earliest surviving pieces of written Kurdish, in the form of translated Bibles (see Literature). The missionaries have traditionally found these Kurds (who were mostly agriculturalists) more receptive to their works than the Muslim Kurds (who were mostly pastoralist nomads). Even today, the Primary focus of the Christian and Bâhâ'i missionarics remains the Kurds following the Cult.


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The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber
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Watch the video: Lets Play - Spirit Legends 3 - Time For Change - Part 1 (January 2022).