History Podcasts

The revised official map of the Battle of Shiloh

The revised official map of the Battle of Shiloh

The revised official map of the Battle of Shiloh (left)

The revised official map of the Battle of Shiloh (left side)

Map taken from Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: I: Sumter to Shiloh, p.502

Shiloh, revised official map (left half)
Shiloh, revised official map (right half)
Shiloh, revised official map (combined)
Return to Battle of Shiloh/ Pittsburg Landing



Map Battle of Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee

The maps in the Map Collections materials were either published prior to 1922, produced by the United States government, or both (see catalogue records that accompany each map for information regarding date of publication and source). The Library of Congress is providing access to these materials for educational and research purposes and is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17 of the United States Code) or any other restrictions in the Map Collection materials.

Note that the written permission of the copyright owners and/or other rights holders (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.


Contents

The meaning of the word "Shiloh" is unclear. Sometimes, it is translated as a Messianic title that means He Whose It Is [2] or as Pacific, Pacificator or Tranquility that refers to the Samaritan Pentateuch. [3] Regardless, the name of Shiloh the town is derived from שלה ‎ and may be translated as Tranquility Town (or Fair Haven or Pleasantville). [4]

Mentioned in the Books of Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 1 Kings, Psalms, and Jeremiah, Shiloh is situated north of Bethel, east of the Bethel–Shechem highway, and south of Lebonah in the hill-country of Ephraim in the tribal territorial allotment of the tribe of Ephraim. (Judg. 21:19). Shiloh was identified unambiguously with Khirbet Seilun (Tel Shiloh) by American philologist E. Robinson in 1838. The location had been established long before by the Roman writer Eusebius, and by Ishtori Haparchi.

Bronze Age Edit

Long before the advent of the Israelites, Shiloh was a walled city with a religious shrine or sanctuary during Middle and Late Bronze Age Canaan. [5]

Iron Age Edit

Hebrew Bible narrative Edit

When the Israelites arrived in the land, they set up there the ancient wilderness tent shrine (the Tent of Meeting: Heb. Ohel-Mo'ed). There Joshua and Eleazar divided the land among the tribes who had not yet received their allocation (Joshua 18:1–10) and dealt with the allocation of cities to the Levites (Joshua 21:1–8). Subsequently, Shiloh became one of the leading religious shrines in ancient Israel, a status it held until shortly before David's elevation of Jerusalem. [6]

The whole congregation of Israel assembled together at Shiloh and set up the tent (or tabernacle) of the congregation there.

The tabernacle had been built under Moses' direction from God (Exodus 26) to house the Ark of the Covenant, also built under Moses' direction from God (Exodus 25). According to Talmudic sources, the tent sanctuary remained at Shiloh for 369 years [7] until the Ark of the Covenant was taken into the battle camp at Eben-Ezer (1 Samuel 4:3–5) and captured by the Philistines at Aphek (probably Antipatris). At some point during its long stay at Shiloh, the portable tent seems to have been enclosed within a compound — a Greek "temenos". It was at Shiloh that Eli and Samuel ministered (1 Samuel 3:21). At some point, the Tent of Meeting was moved to Gibeon, [8] which became an Israelite holy site under David and Solomon.

Shiloh was one of the main centers of Israelite worship during the pre-monarchic period, [9] by virtue of the presence there of the Tent Shrine and Ark of the Covenant. The people made pilgrimages there for major feasts and sacrifices, and Judges 21 records the place as the site of an annual dance of maidens among the vineyards.

According to 1 Samuel 1–3, the sanctuary at Shiloh was administered by the Aaronite high priest Eli and his two sons, Hophni and Phinehas. According to this account, the young Samuel was dedicated by his mother Hannah there, to be raised at the shrine by the high priest, and his own prophetic ministry is presented as having begun there. Hophni and Phinehas are noted as malicious in their dealings with those who came to the shrine to offer sacrifices (1 Samuel 2:12–17). It was under Eli and his sons that the Ark was lost to Israel in a battle with the Philistines at Aphek. W.F. Albright, hypothesized that the Philistines also destroyed Shiloh at this time this conclusion is disputed, [10] but supported by traditional commentary. [11] The place may have been destroyed later as well, though the biblical text records no such claimed destruction. Certainly, the shadowy figure of Ahijah the Shilonite, [12] who instigated the revolt of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, against David's grandson Rehoboam ( I Kings 11, 14 ), came from there, and he bore the same name as the Aaronite priest that consulted the Ark for Saul in I Samuel 14:3 . Schley has claimed that the capture of the Ark and the death of Saul occurred in the same battle and that the later Davidic editors redacted the texts to make it appear as if Saul had ruled without either Tent Shrine or Ark, and thus without sacral legitimacy. [13] This claim is disputed. [ citation needed ]

What is certain is that during the prophetic ministry of Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 7:12–15 26:5–9, 41:5 ) over three hundred years later, Shiloh had been reduced to ruins. Jeremiah used the example of Shiloh to warn the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem what Yahweh Elohim will do to the "place where I caused my name to dwell," warning them that their holy city, Jerusalem, like Shiloh, could fall under divine judgment.

Byzantine period Edit

Jerome, in his letter to Paula and Eustochium, dated about 392–393, writes: "With Christ at our side we shall pass through Shiloh and Bethel " (Ep.46,13, PL 22, 492). The official church of Jerusalem did not schedule an annual pilgrimage to Shiloh, unlike Bethel. On the contrary, Samuel's feast was held on August 20 in the village of Masephta (Mizpah). Even the pilgrims seemingly did not visit Shiloh, for the only one that mentions its name—the sixth-century pilgrim Theodosius in De Situ Terrae Sanctae (ch. 4, CCSL 175, 116)—wrongly locates it midway between Jerusalem and Emmaus Nicopolis. The mistaken identification lasted for centuries, as appears, for example, on the Florentine map of 1300, which places Shiloh at Nabi Samwil, where the Tomb of Samuel is found. The sixth-century mosaic Madaba Map wrongly locates Shiloh east of Shechem, omitting the depiction of the church.

Early Muslim and Crusader periods Edit

In 638 the Muslims conquered the area of Palestine. Muslim pilgrims to Shiloh mention a mosque called es-Sekineh where the memory of Jacob's and Joseph's deeds was revered. The earliest source is el-Harawi, who visited the country in 1173 when it was occupied by the Crusaders and wrote: "Seilun is the village of the mosque es-Sekineh where the stone of the Table is found". Yaqut (1225) and el-Quarwini (1308, Marmardji, 94–95), write similarly.

Overview Edit

Archaeological excavations have shown that the place was already settled from about 1750 BCE (Middle Bronze II or MB II, otherwise known as MB IIB according to the Albright school) however, it is not mentioned in any pre-biblical source. A tell and many impressive remains have been unearthed from the Canaanite and Israelite eras, with habitation lasting until the 8th century BCE. During the following 12 centuries Shiloh is solely noted as a station on sojourners' routes, usually having only its religious-historical significance to offer. Archaeological excavations have revealed remains from the Roman and Persian as well as Early and Late Muslim periods.

An impressive glacis has been located and pottery, animal remains, weapons and other objects have been recovered. [ dubious – discuss ]

History of excavations Edit

Soundings were first made in 1922 by Aage Schmidt. A Danish team led by Hans Kjær (overseen by W.F. Albright) excavated for three seasons between the years 1926–32. A probe was done by Sven Holm-Nielson and Marie-Louise Buhl in 1963. An extensive excavation was done by Israel Finkelstein during the years 1981–84. Since 2006 further excavations have taken place there. Digs are currently ran by Scott Stripling. [14]

Finkelstein excavations Edit

Finkelstein's work established eight strata, ranging from Middle Bronze II to the Byzantine period.

Bronze Age Edit

A massive wall is attributed to the Middle Bronze III (MB IIC) stage, preserved at a height of 7.3 metres (24 ft) and width up to 5.5 metres (18 ft), with an extensive glacis.

Iron Age Edit

The Iron I (Israelite) remains yielded a pillared two-storey public building near the top of the tell, the earliest attributed to Israelites. Collared rim storage jars and some cultic items were found in these buildings, pointing to usage as part of a cultic complex. More than 20 silos were uncovered from this era, included one with carbonized wheat. The destruction layer evident throughout the tell may have occurred in the wake of the Philistine victory at Eben-Ezer.

According to radiocarbon dating by Finkelstein, the site was abandoned around 1050 BCE, and then sparsely repopulated during the Iron II period. Jeremiah's admonition in the course of his temple sermon, "Go now to my place that was in Shiloh" ( Jeremiah 7:12 ), would have occurred during this era.

Cultic site Edit

One of the more intriguing finds was that of a heap of pottery outside the city wall before the advent of the Israelite culture (c. 1000 BCE). [ citation needed ] This pile of pottery was the remnant of a number of animal sacrifices, which were tossed over the wall after completion of the ritual and then buried. This find points to a sacral status of Shiloh during the Canaanite period, a status adopted by the Israelites. The top of the tell, where Finkelstein supposes that the tabernacle would have been placed, is now exposed bedrock, offering no clues concerning Israelite worship (aside from the adjacent storage complex).

Roman and Byzantine periods Edit

More substantive villages emerged in the Roman and Byzantine periods.

Byzantine churches Edit

Excavations from 2006 to 2007, carried out adjacent to and just south of Tel Shiloh, exposed elaborate mosaic floors as well as several Greek inscriptions, one explicitly referring to the site as the "village of Shiloh". [ citation needed ] During August–September 2006 archaeological excavations were carried out adjacent to the tell of Shiloh. A team led by the Archaeological Staff Officer for Judea and Samaria in Israel's Civilian Administration Antiquities Unit, performing a clean-up operation at Shiloh this summer, a belated continuation to a previous 1998 dig, discovered the mosaic floor of a large Byzantine church which was probably constructed between 380 and 420 AD.

Three Byzantine basilicas have now been uncovered. [15] The length of one, excavated by Hans Klær in the late 1920s, is 40 metres (130 ft). The width, also measured externally, is 14.10 metres (46.3 ft), but a 6.40-metre (21.0 ft) wide room adjoins the building on the south side. This church had three naves, and 12 bases and two beautiful Corinthian capitals 62 cm (24 in) high and 72–61 cm (28–24 in) wide are preserved. Their appearance recalls the well-known fourth-century style, with separate leaves revealing the ribbing of the back leaves, and a smooth leaf under the corner.

A structure discovered in 2006 lies under a Muslim free-standing structure known as Weli Yetaim. It seems to have suffered problems of water drainage in its western section despite the installation of run-off pipes and troughs. It appears that the solution was to raise the level of the church [ dubious – discuss ] and the laying of a new mosaic floor. It was the older, original floor at the lower level that was revealed during the summer of 2006. The mosaic contains geometric designs, a cross, flora representations and three inscriptions, one, a dedication of a bench, the second, a salute to the residents of "Siloun" (as set in mosaic in Greek script: "CIλOYN") and the third, a general wish for good tidings. Another discovery of an addition to one of the basilicas occurred in 2013. [16]

Shiloh is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis as part of the benediction given by Jacob to his son Judah: "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh comes, and unto him shall the gathering of the people be." ( Genesis 49:10 ). It could be a figure, perhaps the Messiah, or a place, as mentioned later in Judges and also in Jeremiah 41:5.

Messianic Jewish and some Christian interpretations Edit

Messianic Judaism became attached to Shiloh as a result of this verse. Shiloh is believed to refer to Jesus by some Christians. Alternative translations have led others, including some Christians, to different conclusions. [17]


The revised official map of the Battle of Shiloh - History

Recommended Reading : Guide to the Battle of Shiloh , by Army War College . Description: As Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman prepared their inexperienced troops for a massive offensive by an equally green Confederate army in April 1862, the outcome of the Civil War was still very much in doubt. For two of the most chaotic and ravaging days of the War, the Union forces counterattacked and fended off the Rebels. Losses were great--more than 20,000 casualties out of 100,000 Union and Confederate troops. Continued below…

But out of the struggle, Grant and Sherman forged their own union that would be a major factor in the Union Army's final victory. For the Confederates, Shiloh was a devastating disappointment. By the time the siege was over, they had lost both the battle and one of their ablest commanders, Albert Sidney Johnston. Eyewitness accounts by battle participants make these guides an invaluable resource for travelers and nontravelers who want a greater understanding of five of the most devastating yet influential years in our nation's history. Explicit directions to points of interest and maps--illustrating the action and showing the detail of troop position, roads, rivers, elevations, and tree lines as they were 130 years ago--help bring the battles to life. In the field, these guides can be used to recreate each battle's setting and proportions, giving the reader a sense of the tension and fear each soldier must have felt as he faced his enemy. This book is part of the U.S. Army War College Guides to Civil War Battles series.

Recommended Reading : Shiloh : A Battlefield Guide (This Hallowed Ground: Guides to Civil War), by Mark Grimsley (Author), Steven E. Woodworth (Author). Description: Peabody’s Battle Line, McCuller’s Field, Stuart’s Defense, the Peach Orchard, and Hell’s Hollow—these monuments mark some of the critical moments in the battle of Shiloh but offer the visitor only the most meager sense of what happened on the banks of the Tennessee in April 1862. This battlefield guide breathes life into Civil War history, giving readers a clear picture of the setting at the time of engagement, who was where, and when and how the battle progressed. Continued below…

Designed to lead the user on a one-day tour of one of the most important battlefields of the war, the guide provides precise directions to all the key locations in a manner reflecting how the battle itself unfolded. A wealth of maps, vivid descriptions, and careful but accessible analysis makes plain the sweep of events and the geography of the battlefield, enhancing the experience of Shiloh for the serious student, the casual visitor, and the armchair tourist alike.

About the Authors: Mark Grimsley is a professor of history at Ohio State University . He is the author of And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May–June, 1864, and the co-editor of Civilians in the Path of War, both published by the University of Nebraska Press . Steven E. Woodworth is a professor of history at Texas Christian University . He is the author of Chickamauga : A Battlefield Guide and Six Armies in Tennessee : The Chickamauga and Chattanooga Campaigns.

Recommended Reading : The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged (Hardcover). Description: How can an essential "cornerstone of Shiloh historiography" remain unavailable to the general public for so long? That's what I kept thinking as I was reading this reprint of the 1913 edition of David W. Reed's “The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged.” Reed, a veteran of the Battle of Shiloh and the first historian of the Shiloh National Military Park , was tabbed to write the official history of the battle, and this book was the result. Reed wrote a short, concise history of the fighting and included quite a bit of other valuable information in the pages that followed. The large and impressive maps that accompanied the original text are here converted into digital format and included in a CD located within a flap at the back of the book. Author and former Shiloh Park Ranger Timothy Smith is responsible for bringing this important reference work back from obscurity. His introduction to the book also places it in the proper historical framework. Continued below…

Reed's history of the campaign and battle covers only seventeen pages and is meant to be a brief history of the subject. The detail is revealed in the rest of the book. And what detail there is! Reed's order of battle for Shiloh goes down to the regimental and battery level. He includes the names of the leaders of each organization where known, including whether or not these men were killed, wounded, captured, or suffered some other fate. In a touch not often seen in modern studies, the author also states the original regiment of brigade commanders. In another nice piece of detail following the order of battle, staff officers for each brigade and higher organization are listed. The book's main point and where it truly shines is in the section entitled "Detailed Movements of Organizations". Reed follows each unit in their movements during the battle. Reading this section along with referring to the computerized maps gives one a solid foundation for future study of Shiloh . Forty-five pages cover the brigades of all three armies present at Shiloh .

Wargamers and buffs will love the "Abstract of Field Returns". This section lists Present for Duty, engaged, and casualties for each regiment and battery in an easy to read table format. Grant's entire Army of the Tennessee has Present for Duty strengths. Buell's Army of the Ohio is also counted well. The Confederate Army of the Mississippi is counted less accurately, usually only going down to brigade level and many times relying only on engaged strengths. That said, buy this book if you are looking for a good reference work for help with your order of battle.

In what I believe is an unprecedented move in Civil War literature, the University of Tennessee Press made the somewhat unusual decision to include Reed's detailed maps of the campaign and battle in a CD which is included in a plastic sleeve inside the back cover of the book. The cost of reproducing the large maps and including them as foldouts or in a pocket in the book must have been prohibitive, necessitating this interesting use of a CD. The maps were simple to view and came in a PDF format. All you'll need is Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free program, to view these. It will be interesting to see if other publishers follow suit. Maps are an integral part of military history, and this solution is far better than deciding to include poor maps or no maps at all. The Read Me file that came with the CD relays the following information:

The maps contained on this CD are scans of the original oversized maps printed in the 1913 edition of D. W. Reed's The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged. The original maps, which were in a very large format and folded out of the pages of this edition, are of varying sizes, up to 23 inches by 25 inches. They were originally created in 1901 by the Shiloh National Military Park under the direction of its historian, David W. Reed. They are the most accurate Shiloh battle maps in existence.

The maps on the CD are saved as PDF (Portable Document Format) files and can be read on any operating system (Windows, Macintosh, Linux) by utilizing Adobe Acrobat Reader. Visit http://www.adobe.com to download Acrobat Reader if you do not have it installed on your system.

Map 1. The Field of Operations from Which the Armies Were Concentrated at Shiloh , March and April 1862

Map 2. The Territory between Corinth , Miss. , and Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn. , Showing Positions and Route of the Confederate Army in Its Advance to Shiloh , April 3, 4, 5, & 6, 1862

Map 3. Positions on the First Day, April 6, 1862

Map 4. Positions on the Second Day, April 7, 1862

Complete captions appear on the maps.

Timothy Smith has done students of the Civil War an enormous favor by republishing this important early work on Shiloh . Relied on for generations by Park Rangers and other serious students of the battle, The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Engaged has been resurrected for a new generation of Civil War readers. This classic reference work is an essential book for those interested in the Battle of Shiloh. Civil War buffs, wargamers, and those interested in tactical minutiae will also find Reed's work to be a very good buy. Highly recommended.

Recommended Reading : Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 . Review: The bloody and decisive two-day battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862) changed the entire course of the American Civil War. The stunning Northern victory thrust Union commander Ulysses S. Grant into the national spotlight, claimed the life of Confederate commander Albert S. Johnston, and forever buried the notion that the Civil War would be a short conflict. The conflagration at Shiloh had its roots in the strong Union advance during the winter of 1861-1862 that resulted in the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee . Continued below…

The offensive collapsed General Albert S. Johnston advanced line in Kentucky and forced him to withdraw all the way to northern Mississippi . Anxious to attack the enemy, Johnston began concentrating Southern forces at Corinth , a major railroad center just below the Tennessee border. His bold plan called for his Army of the Mississippi to march north and destroy General Grant's Army of the Tennessee before it could link up with another Union army on the way to join him. On the morning of April 6, Johnston boasted to his subordinates, "Tonight we will water our horses in the Tennessee !" They nearly did so. Johnston 's sweeping attack hit the unsuspecting Federal camps at Pittsburg Landing and routed the enemy from position after position as they fell back toward the Tennessee River . Johnston 's sudden death in the Peach Orchard, however, coupled with stubborn Federal resistance, widespread confusion, and Grant's dogged determination to hold the field, saved the Union army from destruction. The arrival of General Don C. Buell's reinforcements that night turned the tide of battle. The next day, Grant seized the initiative and attacked the Confederates, driving them from the field. Shiloh was one of the bloodiest battles of the entire war, with nearly 24,000 men killed, wounded, and missing. Edward Cunningham, a young Ph.D. candidate studying under the legendary T. Harry Williams at Louisiana State University , researched and wrote Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 in 1966. Although it remained unpublished, many Shiloh experts and park rangers consider it to be the best overall examination of the battle ever written. Indeed, Shiloh historiography is just now catching up with Cunningham, who was decades ahead of modern scholarship. Western Civil War historians Gary D. Joiner and Timothy B. Smith have resurrected Cunningham's beautifully written and deeply researched manuscript from its undeserved obscurity. Fully edited and richly annotated with updated citations and observations, original maps, and a complete order of battle and table of losses, Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862 will be welcomed by everyone who enjoys battle history at its finest. Edward Cunningham, Ph.D., studied under T. Harry Williams at Louisiana State University . He was the author of The Port Hudson Campaign: 1862-1863 (LSU, 1963). Dr. Cunningham died in 1997. Gary D. Joiner, Ph.D. is the author of One Damn Blunder from Beginning to End: The Red River Campaign of 1864, winner of the 2004 Albert Castel Award and the 2005 A. M. Pate, Jr., Award, and Through the Howling Wilderness: The 1864 Red River Campaign and Union Failure in the West. He lives in Shreveport , Louisiana . About the Author: Timothy B. Smith, Ph.D., is author of Champion Hill: Decisive Battle for Vicksburg (winner of the 2004 Mississippi Institute of Arts and Letters Non-fiction Award), The Untold Story of Shiloh: The Battle and the Battlefield, and This Great Battlefield of Shiloh: History, Memory, and the Establishment of a Civil War National Military Park. A former ranger at Shiloh, Tim teaches history at the University of Tennessee .

Recommended Reading : Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War (Simon & Schuster). From Publishers Weekly: The bloodbath at Shiloh , Tenn. (April 6-7, 1862), brought an end to any remaining innocence in the Civil War. The combined 23,000 casualties that the two armies inflicted on each other in two days shocked North and South alike. Ulysses S. Grant kept his head and managed, with reinforcements, to win a hard-fought victory. Continued below…


Tennessee Commemorates Civil War 150th At Shiloh

SHILOH, Tenn. — Tennessee’s Shiloh National Military Park, a masterpiece of Civil War interpretation and preservation, will hold the 150 th commemoration of its strategic battle during a series of events taking place March 29-April 8.

The state’s 2012 Sesquicentennial Signature Event: “Invasions by Rail and River: The Battle of Shiloh” will be held April 4-5 at Pickwick Landing State Park in Pickwick Dam.

The Signature Event begins with the Looking Back project hosted by Tennessee State Library & Archives and also features a teacher’s workshop “Illuminating the Battle” hosted by Middle Tennessee State University’s Center for Historic Preservation. There will be a red carpet film premiere of a state-of-the-art documentary The Story of Shiloh: Fiery Trial at 7 p.m. on April 4.

Official Opening Ceremony will take place at 9 a.m. April 5 and will feature a forum with America’s foremost historians on the battle of Shiloh, living history demonstrations, a special Sesquicentennial Civil War exhibit offering rare and unique artifacts from the Battle of Shiloh and a musical performance by The 52 nd Regimental String Band. The event will kick off with the firing of an official Shiloh cannon at Pickwick Landing State Park.

Co-chairs of the Tennessee Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission, Commissioner Susan Whitaker, Tennessee Department of Tourist Development and Dr. Carroll Van West, director of MTSU Center for Historic Preservation and Tennessee Civil War National Heritage Area, will host the event. Governor Bill Haslam has been invited to participate.

The symposium is jointly sponsored by the Tennessee Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission, Tennessee Civil War National Heritage Area, Tennessee Historical Society and Shiloh National Military Park.


Tour the Shiloh Battlefield in One Day

If you have one day for this trip, spend it exploring the pristine Shiloh National Military Park, site of the first great bloodletting of the Civil War. On April 6-7, 1862, the Federal Armies of the Ohio and the Tennessee fought desperately against a Confederate onslaught initially led by General Albert S. Johnston. On April 6th, Johnston fell wounded and command of his Army of the Mississippi devolved to General P. G. T. Beauregard. Confident that he had bested his opponent on April 6th, Beauregard rested on his laurels, and was ill-prepared for the Union counteroffensive that roared to life the next morning. By the end of April 7th, 23,746 Union and Confederate casualties lay across the peaceful landscape, making it the bloodiest American battle to that date. Shiloh changed the perception of how costly this war would be and gave birth to the notion that Ulysses S. Grant was butcher.

  • Print or download the Tour Map.
  • Watch the Shiloh Animated Map.
  • Download the Shiloh Battle App, for more detail and touring assistance.

Shiloh National Military Park

Time: 4-6 hours (7-8 if you love to hike)
Details: www.nps.gov/shil/index

The Battle of Shiloh, was a horrific struggle fought in the tangled woods and small farm fields of southwestern Tennessee on April 6-7, 1862. It pitted Confederate Generals Albert S. Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard against Union General Ulysses S. Grant.

  • The park does not charge an entrance fee.
  • Find out what Ranger Programs are scheduled.
  • Check out what special events they may have.
  • See the exhibits and watch the introductory film if you have time.

Tour the battlefield. You have several options:

  • Follow the NPS Auto Tour Route and get out and explore each stop.
  • Purchase a touring CD from the bookstore.
  • Use the Civil War Trust's free Shiloh Battle App on your smart phone.
  • Hike the battlefield.
    – The battle began here, at 4:55 A.M., when a Union patrol from Colonel Everett Peaboy's brigade discovered, and engaged with, the lead elements of Johnston's army. – The circa 2001 replica stands on the site of the wartime church. On the morning of April 6th, fighting raged around the church–which later served as a field hospital. – Union forces fought tenaciously to hold back waves of Confederate attacks. By mid-afternoon relentless Confederate assaults finally dislodged the Federals, but it cost Albert S. Johnston his life. – It was in this vicinity that Grant received the bulk of his reinforcements via riverboats and turned the tide of battle for the Federals. – 3,584 Union soldiers from the battle and actions along the Tennessee River are buried here.

Visit the Corinth Battlefield and Interpretive Center, which contains 14 sites associated with the Siege of Corinth.

Visit the Corinth Contraband Camp, established by Union General Grenville M. Dodge, the Corinth Contraband Camp provided refuge for newly freed slaves.

Insider tip: For a local meal, try the Hagy's Catfish Hotel.


Secession at Shiloh

Shiloh: Scene of Battle. Kurtz and Allison lithograph from 1886 depicting the ferocity of fighting.

By Timothy B. Smith, for Hallowed Ground

Shiloh: Scene of Battle. Kurtz and Allison lithograph from 1886 depicting the ferocity of fighting.

January 9, 1861, was a momentous day for the 100 men gathered at the State House in Jackson, Miss. They were delegates to the Mississippi Secession Convention, and they were about to make a fateful decision — not just for their state but also for themselves personally. Some were wealthy planters who owned large plantations along the Mississippi River they knew full well that secession would lead to war, and that war would, at minimum, lead to closed markets and, potentially, total destruction. While dedicated Mississippians, they were still unenthusiastic about secession and termed “cooperationists” as they tried to delay disunion. Others, however, were more adamant about immediate secession, and they carried the day. The final vote was a dominating 84 percent majority for leaving the Union, and there was an immediate feeling of consequence when the deed was done. While casting his vote, James L. Alcorn explained, “The die is cast — the Rubicon is crossed — and I enlist myself with the army that marches on Rome. I vote for the ordinance.”

The delegates must have understood the significance of their action, but few realized the extent to which they would be personally involved. Most who were of military age, and a few who were not, opted to join the newly established ranks during the excitement of secession and war, but the extent to which they would be called on to suffer and perhaps die was probably not foremost in their minds. It has often been noted that the signers of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 were potentially signing their death warrants the same could be said of the Mississippi delegates in Jackson. For some, their actions would consign them to death. Others would suffer terrifying wounds or imprisonment. Most would be economically and socially dispossessed. Their state would be devastated. It was a serious decision to make.

Although a third of the delegates were too old to serve in the ranks (many still equipped companies from their locales or sent sons to the war effort), there were numerous delegates to the secession convention in the Confederate army by April 1862. During the initial year of the war, these delegates experienced only limited exposure to the conflict. There was some suffering, to be sure — the first delegate died in September 1861, but it was not on a battlefield or even in the army. Others were removed from Mississippi to defend other parts of the Confederacy. At least 15 of the delegates, primarily those who joined up first, were sent to the Virginia front, serving far from home in the Eastern Theater.

War Comes Home to Mississippi

The war began to come closer to Mississippi in February 1862, when a Union army under Ulysses S. Grant won impressive victories at Forts Henry and Donelson in northwestern Tennessee. This fighting, uncomfortably close to Mississippi itself, led to the first death of a delegate in action. Francis Marion Rogers of Monroe County, a wealthy lawyer, planter, judge and captain in the 14th Mississippi Infantry, died defending Fort Donelson on February 15. Beyond Rogers, at least four others who had been at Fort Donelson were either wounded or sent to Northern prison camps. Then the news became much worse: multiple Union armies were moving south toward Mississippi, intent on capturing the vital Confederate railroad crossing at Corinth in the northeastern corner of the state. The war was about to hit Mississippi itself.

At least eleven delegates were a part of the army assembling at Corinth under Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, who soon advanced across the state line into Tennessee to attack Grant’s army at Pittsburg Landing. He hoped to destroy that army before another Federal force under Don Carlos Buell arrived on the scene. In effect, Johnston was trying to defend Corinth, her railroads, the state of Mississippi and the Mississippi Valley as a whole by going on the offensive. The result was the climactic Battle of Shiloh, fought April 6–7, 1862.

Of the 11 former delegates at Corinth, 10 saw action at Shiloh. The exception was lawyer and future Confederate Brig. Gen. Samuel Benton of Marshall County, who was detached from his regiment, the 9th Mississippi, in order to form a new unit in the interior of the state as early as March 24. The rest, however, went into the fight at Shiloh. On all, the battle would have a tremendous impact for some, it would mean life or death.

Shiloh: Place of Peace. Today, Shiloh National Park preserves approximately 4,300 acres of the battlefield in near-pristine condition. Michael Edwards

All 10 delegates engaged in literally defending Mississippi at Shiloh were officers, as would be expected given their status in the community and the early Confederate practice of the men electing their own officers. Four were captains of companies, with another captain acting as a staff officer to Confederate Maj. Gen. Braxton Bragg. There was also one major, two lieutenant colonels, one colonel and a brigadier general.

When the Battle of Shiloh began at dawn on April 6, these 10 were arrayed throughout the Confederate army, which was stacked in line four corps deep. The only delegate in the first line, Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee’s corps, was Col. John J. Thornton, commanding the 6th Mississippi Infantry in Brig. Gen. Patrick Cleburne’s brigade on the extreme left flank. Thornton himself was somewhat of an anomaly representing Rankin County in the convention, the doctor was so convinced that he should represent the intentions of his cooperationist constituents that he voted against secession and did not attend the convention on January 15, the day the ordinance was officially signed. Thus, he became one of only two delegates who did not sign the ordinance. The other was a delegate who attended only the first three days of the convention, not long enough to cast a vote on the secession ordinance — making Thornton the only active participant in the convention who refused to sign. Yet, he was one of the first delegates to take up arms for the Confederacy, having been a militia officer before the war.

Shiloh Cyclorama. While the original work by French artist Theophile Poilpot was displayed only briefly in Chicago and Washington before being dismantled, this portion was used in advertisements for the McCormick Reaper Company into the 20th century. Library of Congress

Thornton led his Mississippians forward on that bright morning, but Cleburne’s brigade soon ran into a swamp. The quagmire was so extensive around Shiloh Branch that it forced the brigade to split and go around on either side. Most of the regiments went to the west of the swamp, attacking at Shiloh Church, but Thornton’s 6th Mississippi and the 23rd Tennessee went east and entered Rhea Field, where the 53rd Ohio was waiting.

The result may sound like the stuff of legend, but it is true. Thornton and his Mississippians made three unsuccessful assaults across Rhea Field and through the enemy’s encampments, and were each time driven back by the Ohioans and an Illinois artillery battery on their flank. The regiment lost 300 of its 425 men on that one field, its colonel among the wounded. As Thornton led his men forward during one of the assaults, the regiment’s flag bearer was hit and instantly killed. Thornton grabbed the flag and continued on, but he too was quickly cut down, severely wounded in the thigh. The Battle of Shiloh was over for this man, wounded in defense of the secession for which he would not vote.

Forward the Mississippi Brigade

Thornton and his Mississippians’ experiences were similar to those of the other units in Hardee’s first line. Few of them made much progress for several hours, necessitating the Confederate high command to send forward the next wave of troops, Maj. Gen. Braxton Bragg’s corps. In this line were numerous Mississippi convention delegates, including one of Bragg’s staff officers, assistant adjutant general Harvey W. Walter, a lawyer from Marshall County. Little is known of Walter’s experience at Shiloh, but Bragg’s official report, written later in April, commended him for his service.

The other Mississippians in this second line were all in one brigade, Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers’s Mississippi brigade on the extreme right. The commander, a lawyer and large planter before the war, had attended the secession convention as a delegate representing DeSoto County. After the convention, Chalmers had enlisted as a captain, but was named colonel of the 9th Mississippi just one month later. By the Battle of Shiloh, he had risen to brigadier general in command of a brigade. Within the brigade, Lt. Col. Hamilton Mayson, a lawyer from Marion County, was commanding the 7th Mississippi in the absence of its colonel. There were also two former delegates serving as captains: small farmer John B. Herring of Pontotoc County commanded a company in the 5th Mississippi, while Daniel H. Parker of Franklin County — who, like Thornton, had initially voted against secession but quickly joined the Confederate army — commanding a company under Mayson in the 7th Mississippi. Company E, 7th Mississippi was thus inundated by secession convention delegates its captain had been there, as well as its regimental commander, brigade commander, and an officer on its corps commander’s staff.

Chalmers’s brigade moved forward in support of the Confederate right near Spain Field and aided the front line units, most notably Brig. Gen. Adley Gladden’s brigade, in pushing Federal Brig. Gen. Benjamin Prentiss’s division back. Thereafter, when the Confederate high command realized there was a major threat farther to the right, Chalmers’s Mississippians and an Alabama brigade were taken out of line and redirected to the east, where they soon fought Col. David Stuart’s Federal brigade in the ravines near the Tennessee River. Casualties were numerous as they fought their way up and down the slopes, but none of the convention delegates were hit.

The Confederate advance stalled on this right flank, however, as it had begun to do all across the field, necessitating the Confederate high command to throw in additional units. Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk’s corps, the next in line, contained no Mississippi convention delegates, but the reserve corps commanded by former U.S. vice president John C. Breckinridge contained four more. Lawyer, planter and future Confederate general William F. Brantley of Choctaw County, the major of the 15th Mississippi, was in command of the regiment, while its colonel, Winfield S. Statham, led the brigade. Prewar lawyer Francis Marion Aldridge of Yalobusha County was a captain serving under Brantley. Edward F. McGehee, who owned a large plantation with more than 70 slaves in Panola County, was lieutenant colonel of what was originally the 25th Mississippi but had been recognized as the 2nd Confederate Infantry. Brantley and Aldridge were in Col. Winfield Statham’s brigade, while McGehee was assigned to Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen’s brigade. In addition, planter Thomas D. Lewers of DeSoto County was a captain in Col. William Wirt Adams’s cavalry regiment assigned to this reserve corps, but the troopers saw little action, their main job being to hold a ford on Lick Creek to the south.

As Chalmers, Mayson, Parker and Herring pushed forward to the east near the Tennessee River, Statham and Bowen led their brigades into the gap that had been created earlier, when the Mississippians and Alabamians were removed from the line. They took position on the south side of a large cotton field, with a peach orchard and a small pond on the northern fringes. They were led by an impressive array of officers, including army commander Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, former vice president Breckinridge, and Tennessee governor-and-Confederate staff officer Isham G. Harris.

To the Banks of the Tennessee

The famous assaults across Sarah Bell’s cotton field and the Peach Orchard ultimately succeeded, but at a terrific loss of life, including Johnston. Death and injury also came to the Mississippi delegates. In these assaults, Lt. Col. McGehee was terribly wounded in the left foot while, in the words of his regimental commander, John D. Martin, “gallantly encouraging his regiment, without regard to his personal exposure.” Brantley likewise was wounded while leading the 15th Mississippi onward. Both would survive, but Francis Marion Aldridge was not so fortunate. Hit while leading his company forward in the attacks, Aldridge was killed that day.

The Mississippi delegates’ participation continued in the assaults throughout the remainder of the first day’s action. With so many down, the only major unit containing delegates still in organized operation was Chalmers’ Brigade. Chalmers, Mayson, Parker, and Herring thus led their men forward on the extreme right flank of the army, up and down the massive ravines near the Tennessee River. After aiding in the capture of the remnants of the Hornets’ Nest defenders, their final action came near sundown when they attempted to assault Grant’s final line of defense near Pittsburg Landing. Faced with artillery, infantry, gunboats and the leading elements of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell’s reinforcing army arrayed in this final Union line, the Mississippians’ hope of breaking through was futile. They retired out of artillery range for the evening, although the Union navy’s big guns peppered them throughout the night.

It must have been a miserable night for all the delegates, especially Brantley, Thornton and McGehee, all wounded terribly during the fighting. The non-wounded huddled helplessly as the naval guns and heavy rains bombarded them. Only the lifeless corpse of Francis Marion Aldridge rested peacefully that night.

Shiloh Today. The crowning figure atop the Michigan Monument faces Corinth, Miss., the campaign's objective. Violet Clark

Had the Mississippians and the Confederate high command known what was coming the next day, they would have been even more uncomfortable. Grant and Buell counterattacked at dawn, driving the weakened Confederates backward throughout the second day’s fight. With most of the delegates not in Chalmers’s brigade killed or wounded, only those in Chalmers’s unit fought together as a group on the second day. They resisted the Union advances on the Confederate right near the famous Peach Orchard until Confederate commander Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, having taken over for the fallen Johnston, realized the futility of further resistance. The delegates thus began the slow march back to Corinth. A company of Wirt Adams’s cavalry regiment was engaged the next day in combating the dismal Union pursuit, but Thomas Lewers’s men were apparently not engaged.

Never More Worthy of their State

These Mississippi delegates, as well as thousands of other Southerners, had attempted to defend Corinth, her railroads and the state of Mississippi with a bold stroke. Now, with one of those delegates dead and three others wounded, the remainder prepared to resist the further Union advance toward Corinth. That came in May, and the healthy delegates, as well as an infusion of others who were part of regiments just then joining the army, unsuccessfully attempted to stop the Union progression. Although that attempt likewise failed, the war went on. Vicksburg would be the next major Union goal, and many of the delegates engaged in that campaign as well.

For three of the 10 delegates at Shiloh, the Civil War was over. Aldridge was eventually returned to his native Yalobusha County and buried. Thornton and McGehee, the two most dreadfully wounded at Shiloh, resigned and returned home. Thornton later dabbled in the militia but was not able to take the field again. McGehee noted that he was “now a cripple and will be more or less so for life.” A fourth, Daniel H. Parker, fell sick in May 1862 and returned home to Franklin County, dying of typhoid fever on May 12.

As for the others, they continued in military service, with most rising in their respective ranks throughout the war. Chalmers continued to serve with distinction, particularly alongside Forrest’s cavalry. Braxton Bragg reported that at Shiloh Chalmers had been “at the head of his gallant Mississippians, [and] filled — he could not have exceeded — the measure of my expectations. Never were troops and commander more worthy of each other and of their State.” Brantley recovered from his wounds and served with distinction throughout the war, rising to the rank of brigadier general and commanding his brigade during the Franklin-Nashville Campaign. Herring and Lewers eventually rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. On the other hand, Hamilton Mayson was driven from the army by Braxton Bragg in May, despite his superior Chalmers’s notation that he and the other commanders were “conspicuous in the thickest of the fight” at Shiloh.

For those 10 Mississippi delegates at Shiloh, despite giving their all for her defense, their state was now the war zone. Voting for secession — or not, in the cases of Parker and Thornton — had been the easy part. When it came to fitting action to their words, however, they were just as resolute and willing to lay their lives on the line. And all suffered for it, some even being wounded dreadfully and unable to return to the war. And then there was Francis Marion Aldridge, who had literally signed his death warrant by putting his signature on the Mississippi ordinance of secession.


PARK FILM

In lieu of an informative museum is by far the best Civil War park film that I have ever seen, Shiloh: Fiery Trial. This 45-minute documentary is so good that I find it hard to believe the U. S. government had anything to do with it (and wouldn’t be surprised to find out that it didn’t). It’s like watching Glory. Excellent graphics do a wonderful job of explaining the Battle of Shiloh (Corinth is not covered), and live action battle scenes are nearly constant. This was no cheap film to make. I wouldn’t go so far as to rate it PG-13, but people do get shot and there is minor blood and gore (bloodied faces of the dead). I’d rate it PG, suitable for those 10 and older, or for kids who understand the concepts of war and death.

You can watch this film on YouTube, but since I’m not sure if it was put there legally, I’m not linking to it.


Shiloh Church

The Battle of Shiloh takes its name from a Methodist log church that stood here during the battle. On the morning of Sunday, April 6, 1862, the church and cemetery grounds became the scene of fierce fighting as Confederates attacked Union forces camped nearby.

The original log meeting house was erected in 1853. The building survived the battle to serve as a hospital, but collapsed several weeks later. A new frame church replaced the original in 1875. The present masonry church was dedicated in 1959.

Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Churches & Religion &bull War, US Civil. A significant historical date for this entry is April 6, 1840.

Location. 35° 8.025′ N, 88° 21.319′ W. Marker is near Shiloh, Tennessee, in Hardin County. Marker is on Corinth-Pittsburg Landing Road, on the right when traveling south. Located at stop seven, Shiloh Church, in Shiloh National Military Park. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Shiloh TN 38376, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Shiloh United Methodist Church (a few steps from this marker) Army of the Mississippi (a few steps from this marker) Army of the Ohio (a few steps from this marker) Army of the Tennessee (a few steps from this marker) Battery B, 1st Illinois Light Artillery (a

few steps from this marker) Shiloh Log Church (within shouting distance of this marker) Shiloh School (within shouting distance of this marker) 17th Illinois Infantry (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Shiloh.

More about this marker. In the center is a drawing captioned, For two days, the armies of the North and South clashed in the fields and forests surrounding Shiloh Church, the log building on the left.

To the right is a portrait of General William T. Sherman. Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman commanded the Fifth Division of the Union Army of the Tennessee. He and his men were camped near Shiloh Church when surprised and assailed by the Confederates. To the far right is a map of the area showing the disposition of forces on in the afternoon of Apirl 7, 1862, the second day of the battle.


Lost in the Grand Canyon

In the spring of 1869, a thirty-five-year-old, one-armed Civil War veteran and self-taught scientist led an expedition down the Colorado River into the last uncharted territory in the United States. Ninety-nine days later, John Wesley Powell emerged from the Grand Canyon after one of the most daring journeys in American history. Transformed by his experience, Powell would forever change America's attitude toward the West. "Lost in the Grand Canyon" is an account of the dramatic quest to explore one of the most unforgiving, and breathtakingly beautiful, places on earth. Produced by Mark Davis Joe Morton narrates, and Peter Coyote provides the voice of John Wesley Powell.

"There were only a couple of great unknowns and the greatest of all the unknowns was the Colorado River system," says author and Colorado River guide, Michael Ghiglieri. "It was a mysterious entity, a lost world. And it was a gamble. If you failed, you might be dead, but if you succeeded, you would be the hero of the decade."

On May 24, Powell and his crew pushed off from Green River, Utah. Three hundred miles downstream, the Green merged with the Colorado. From that point on, the map was blank— a wilderness of towering, inaccessible canyons and treacherous whitewater rapids. Somewhere deep in that rugged desert was the Grand Canyon — a place more of rumor than fact, glimpsed from the rim two centuries before by Coronado's soldiers, but shunned ever since.

Powell was an unlikely explorer — but he had always defied expectations. His father had wanted him to join the ministry, but young Powell was moved by nature more than scripture. After losing his arm at the battle of Shiloh, Powell refused to accept his limitations instead, he returned to his unit and fought for three more years. Despite a limited education, he landed a teaching post after the war at Wesleyan University in Illinois, where he began searching for a way to make his mark.

He found his answer out West. A mountain guide told Powell about a vast unknown area around the lower Colorado River. At a time when America was obsessed with the promise of the West, Powell set out to conquer its greatest perils. He outfitted four boats with guns for hunting, scientific instruments to map the terrain and measure his party's progress, and enough flour, coffee, and bacon to feed his crew of nine for ten months.

But just eighty miles into the journey one boat was smashed to pieces in the rapids, and a third of the food supply lost. Powell named the spot Disaster Falls.

The loss at Disaster Falls made a leisurely, ten-month trip impossible. Powell became more cautious. He ordered the crew to carry the heavy boats and supplies around the worst rapids, rather than try to navigate them. The backbreaking work slowed their progress to a crawl. "Have been working like galley slaves all day," boatman George Bradley wrote in his diary. "Have been wet all day, and I have nothing dry to put on."

On July 21, fifty-nine days into the journey, Powell and his men passed the point where the Green River merged with the Colorado. From here on, there was no way out but to follow the river. "We have an unknown distance yet to run," Powell wrote in his journal. "What falls there are, we know not what rocks beset the channel, we know not . . . With some eagerness and some misgivings, we enter the canyon below."

By the middle of August, Powell and his crew were more than a mile deep in the earth. It was brutally hot and the crew was close to starvation. They were in the Grand Canyon. Powell was forced to abandon his scientific observations the goal now was survival.

On the ninety-seventh day, three men left and began hiking out. Powell later called it Separation Rapid. The three were never seen again.
Just two days later, on August 30, the Powell expedition reached the end of its journey. They had survived America's last Great Unknown, and filled in the last blank spot on the nation's map.

No longer an obscure professor, Powell became a hero. He gave public lectures and speeches, returned for a second Colorado trip to finish his scientific studies, and popularized the Grand Canyon with an illustrated account of his journey. By the early 1880s, he was the director of both the Bureau of Ethnology at the Smithsonian and the new US Geological Survey — the latter putting him in charge of the mapping and disposition of public lands.

Once more, Powell reached to make his mark. Fearing that an unplanned rush into western settlement would doom thousands of small farmers to failure, he used his influence to block further settlement until a comprehensive survey of arid lands and irrigation strategies was completed. Western politicians were apoplectic. Nevada senator "Big Bill" Stewart claimed Powell had become a law unto himself and vowed to destroy him. Powell tried to rally support on the basis of his heroic past, but he was in over his head. His budget slashed, Powell resigned from the Geological Survey.

A year after Powell's death in 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt visited the Grand Canyon and declared it to be "a natural wonder absolutely unparalleled in the world . . . one of the great sights every American should see." The Grand Canyon would come to be embraced like no other natural place in America, a national shrine for those following in the footsteps of John Wesley Powell.

Credits

Written, produced & directed by
MARK J. DAVIS

Associate Producer
NATHAN HENDRIE

Director of Photography
BRIAN DOWLEY

Voice of John Wesley Powell
PETER COYOTE

Location Production Support
O.A.R.S. and Grand Canyon Dories

Powell Boatmen
CHRISTIAN ANGUISH
DAVID BODNER
CHRISTIAN J. DEAN
BEGO GERHART
DAVID LYLE
PAUL NIBLEY
DANO PHILLIPS
RUSSELL WALTERS
STEVE " T-BERRY" YOUNG

Replica Boat Builder
PAUL NIBLEY

Additional camera
PETER KRIEGER

Sound recording
JOHN CAMERON
MICHAEL BECKER

Stills Animation
NATHAN HENDRIE

Production Assistants
ANNA DAVIS
SHANNON DENSMORE

Wardrobe
KATHERINE BALDWIN

Stills Research
KATHERINE KING
MICHAEL MADERO

Sound Design & Mix
HEART PUNCH STUDIO

Lab & Video Post
MEDALLION-P.F.A.

SPECIAL THANKS
Regan Dale
Floyd O'Neil
Charlie Every
Barbara Neary
Paula Fleming
George Wendt
Grand Canyon National Park
Canyonlands National Park

ARCHIVAL PHOTOGRAPHS
Arizona Historical Society/Tucson
The Burns Collection, Ltd.
Corbis
The Denver Public Library, Western History Collection
Deseret News
Grand Canyon National Park Study Collection
Halsted Gallery
Harvard University Archives
Library of Congress
Library of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University
Manuscripts Division, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah
Medford Historical Society
Edward G. Miner Library, University of Rochester
Minneapolis Institute of Art
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The Museums at Stony Brook, NY
National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
National Archives
National Museum of American Art, Washington DC / Art Resource, NY
New Orleans Museum of Art
Reynolds House, Museum of American Art Smithsonian Institution Archives
Union Pacific Museum Collection
US Dept. of the Interior, Office of the Secretary
US Geological Survey Photographic Center
US Army Military History Institute
Utah State Historical Society

ARCHIVAL FOOTAGE
Energy Productions
Hot Shots / Cool Cuts

For
THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE

POST PRODUCTION
Frank Capria
Maureen Barden

ON-AIR PROMOTION
James Dunford

FIELD PRODUCTION
Larry LeCain
Bob McCausland
Chas Norton
Robert Tompkins

SERIES DESIGNERS
Alison Kennedy
Chris Pullman

TITLE ANIMATION
Lizard Lounge Graphics, Inc.

SERIES THEME
Charles Kuskin

SERIES THEME ADAPTATION
Michael Bacon

BUSINESS MANAGER
Christine Larson

PROJECT ADMINISTRATION
Nancy Farrell
Helen R. Russell

INTERACTIVE MEDIA
Danielle Dell'Olio

PUBLICITY
Daphne B. Noyes
Johanna Baker

COORDINATING PRODUCER
Susan Mottau

SERIES EDITOR
Joseph Tovares

SENIOR PRODUCER
Mark Samels

EXECUTIVE PRODUCER
Margaret Drain

An MDTV Productions film
for The American Experience

(c)1999 WGBH Educational Foundation
All rights reserved

Transcript

Hello, I'm David McCullough. Welcome to The American Experience.

The generation of Americans who fought in the Civil War went on to do a great variety of extraordinary things. They built railroads and cities and in some cases, immense personal fortunes. Several became president of the United States. Washington Roebling built the Brooklyn Bridge. Dr. Samuel David Gross of Philadelphia helped transform the practice of surgery. Winslow Homer, an artist-correspondent in the war, went on to paint the American scene as no one ever had.

Our story is about one of the most remarkable men of all that generation and one of the great adventure stories of the American West: John Wesley Powell and the exploration of Colorado River. John Wesley Powell, who had lost an arm in the battle of Shiloh, but who never let that, or much of anything, deter him on his path through life.

A classic American biography is Walace Stegner's book about Powell, "Beyond the Hundredth Meridian," in which he writes of Powell. "Losing one's right arm is a misfortune to some it would be a disaster, to others and excuse. It affected Wes Powell's life about as much as a stone fallen into a swift stream affects the course of a river. With a velocity like his, he simple foamed over it."

If you've ever been down to the bottom of the Grand Canyon, you know what an overwhelming experience it is. It's not just a journey into a totally different place, but into an immensity of time no easier to fathom than the sheer walls of rock rising overhead. But imagine what it was like in the year 1869 when Powell and his party pushed off down river into the Canyon, when it was all unknown.


Tennessee in the Civil War Series

Since 1942, the THQ has published more than 400 articles on the Civil War in the Volunteer State. The best of these pieces are now gathered into 10 volumes—an official legacy project of the Tennessee Historical Society, the Tennessee Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission, and the Tennessee Civil War National Heritage Area. Each trade-quality, soft cover book is approximately 220 pages, printed on acid-free paper, and includes illustrations, maps, and an index.

  • Tennessee in the Civil War, Vol. 1, an overview of the Civil War in the Volunteer State.
  • The Civil War in Appalachia, Vol. 2, focused on all aspects of the war in East Tennessee.
  • The Battle of Shiloh, Vol. 3, the battle, from eye-witness accounts to preservation.
  • The Battle of Stones River and the Fight for Middle Tennessee, Vol. 4, the battle, the Tullahoma Campaign, and more.
  • Nathan Bedford Forrest and the Confederate Cavalry in West Tennessee, Vol. 5, looks at West Tennessee battles.
  • Emancipation and the Fight for Freedom: Tennessee African Americans, 1860-1900, Vol. 6, addresses African Americans during the Civil War and Reconstruction.
  • The Battles for Chattanooga, Vol. 7, the campaign for Chattanooga.
  • Tennessee Women in the Civil War, Vol. 8, women’s dramatic encounters with the war and its stunning consequences.
  • Hood’s Tennessee Campaign, Vol. 9, the campaign’s misery and mystery, ever after a subject of endless controversy.
  • Reconstruction and the Civil War’s Legacy, Vol. 10, the struggle to restore the old order, or to build a new one.

This special series is currently offered at a special THS discount — all books are 60% off, while supplies last. The price you are charged is the discounted amount.

If you wish to order books from Tennessee and the Civil War by mail, a form is available by clicking here: CWS Order Form Vols. 1-10.

List of site sources >>>


Watch the video: 201845 The Battle of Shiloh (January 2022).