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Royal Procession Leaving Rajagriha

Royal Procession Leaving Rajagriha


Procession

Processions have in all peoples and at all times been a natural form of public celebration, as forming an orderly and impressive ceremony. Religious and triumphal processions are abundantly illustrated by ancient monuments, e.g. the religious processions of Egypt, those illustrated by the rock-carvings of Boghaz-Keui, the many representations of processions in Greek art, culminating in the great Panathenaic procession of the Parthenon Frieze, and Roman triumphal reliefs, such as those of the arch of Titus. [1]

Greco-Roman practice Edit

Processions played a prominent part in the great festivals of Greece, where they were always religious in character. The games were either opened or accompanied by more or less elaborate processions and sacrifices, while processions from the earliest times formed part of Leah Ashely of the old nature gods, as those connected with the cult of Dionysus and the Phallic processions, and later formed an essential part of the celebration of the great religious festivals (e.g. the processions of the Thesmophoria, and that of the Great Dionysia), and of the mysteries (e.g. the great procession from Athens to Eleusis, in connection with the Eleusinia). [1]

The most prominent of the Roman processions was that of the Triumph, which had its origin in the return of a victorious army headed by their general, who accompanied by the army, captives, spoils, the chief magistrate, priests bearing the images of the gods, amidst strewing of flowers, burning of incense and the like (Ovid, Trist. iv. 2, 3 and 6), proceeded in great pomp from the Campus to the Capitol to offer sacrifice.

Connected with the triumph was the pompa circensis, or solemn procession that preceded the games in the circus. It first came into use at the Ludi Romani, when the games were preceded by a great procession from the Capitol to the Circus. The praetor or consul who appeared in the ponipa circensis wore the robes of a triumphing general (see Mommsen, Staatsrec/zt I. 397 for the connection of the triumph with the ludi). Thus, when it became customary for the consul to celebrate games at the opening of the consular year, he came, under the empire, to appear in triumphal robes in the processus consularis, or procession of the consul to the Capitol to sacrifice to Jupiter. [1]

Christian practice Edit

Early Edit

After the ascendency of Christianity in the Roman Empire, the consular processions in Constantinople retained their religious character, now proceeding to Hagia Sophia, where prayers and offerings were made but in Rome, where Christianity was not so widely spread among the upper classes, at first the tendency was to convert the procession into a purely civil function, omitting the pagan rites and prayers, without substituting Christian ones. [2]

Only after Theodosius did the processions become a religious event, replete with icons, crosses, and banners. There were other local processions connected with the primitive worship of the country people, which remained unchanged, but they were eventually overshadowed by the popular piety of the Church. Such were those of the Ambarvalia, Robigalia, which were essentially rustic festivals, lustrations of the fields, consisting in a procession round the spot to be purified, leading the sacrificial victims with prayers, hymns, and ceremonies to protect the young crops from evil influence. [3]

Tertullian (2nd century) uses processio and procedere in the sense of to go out, appear in public, and, as applied to a church function, processio was first used in the same way as collecta, i.e. for the assembly of the people in a church. [4] In this sense it appears to be used by Pope Leo I, [5] while in the version by Dionysius Exiguus of the 17th canon of the Council of Laodicea (about 363–364) Ancient Greek: σονάξεσι , is translated by processionibus. [1] [6]

For the processions that formed part of the ritual of the Eucharist, those of the introit, the gospel and the oblation, the earliest records date from the 6th century and even later, [7] but they evidently were established at a much earlier date. As to public processions, these seem to have come into rapid vogue after the recognition of Christianity as the religion of the empire. Those at Jerusalem would seem to have been long established when described by the author of the Peregrinatio Sylviae towards the end of the 4th century. [1]

Very early were the processions accompanied by hymns and prayers, known as litaniae, rogationes or supplicationes. It is to such a procession that reference appears to be made in a letter of St Basil, [8] which would thus be the first recorded mention of a public Christian procession. The first mention for the Western Church occurs in St Ambrose. [9] In both these cases the litanies are stated to have been long in use. There is also mention of a procession accompanied by hymns, organized at Constantinople by St John Chrysostom (c. 390–400) in opposition to a procession of Arians, in Sozomen. [10]

Some liturgists maintain that the early Church in its processions followed Old Testament precedents, quoting such cases as the procession of the ark round the walls of Jericho, [11] the procession of David with the ark, [12] the processions of thanksgiving on the return from captivity, &c. The liturgy of the early Church as Duchesne shows [13] was influenced by that of the Jewish synagogue, but the theory that the Church's processions were directly related to the Old Testament ritual is of later origin. [1]

In times of calamity litanies were held, in which the people walked in robes of penitence, fasting, barefooted, and, in later times, frequently dressed in black (litaniae nigrae). The cross was carried at the head of the procession and often the gospel and the relics of the saint were carried. Gregory of Tours gives numerous instances of such litanies in time of calamity thus he describes [14] a procession of the clergy and people round the city, in which relics of St Remigius were carried and litanies chanted in order to avert the plague. So, too, Gregory the Great [15] writes to the Sicilian bishops to hold processions to prevent a threatened invasion of Sicily. A famous instance of these penitential litanies is the litania septiformis ordered by Gregory the Great in the year 590, when Rome had been inundated and pestilence had followed. [1] In this litany seven processions, of clergy, laymen, monks, nuns, matrons, the poor, and children respectively, starting from seven different churches, proceeded to hear mass at St. Maria Maggiore. [16] This litany has often been confused with the litania major, introduced at Rome in 598 (vide supra), but is quite distinct from it.

Funeral processions, accompanied with singing and the carrying of lighted tapers, were very early customary (see ceremonial use of lights), and akin to these, also very early, were the processions connected with the translation of the relics of martyrs from their original burying place to the church where they were to be enshrined. [17] From the time of the emperor Constantine I these processions were of great magnificence. [1]

Festivals involving processions were adopted by the Christian Church from the pagan calendar of Rome. The litaniae majores et minores, which are stated by Hermann Usener [18] to have been first instituted by Pope Liberius (352-366). It is generally acknowledged that they are the equivalent of the Christian Church of the Roman lustrations of the crops in spring, the Ambarvalia, &c. The litania major, or great procession on St Mark's day (April 25) is shown to coincide both in date and ritual with the Roman Robigalia, which took place ad. vii. Kal. Mai., and consisted in a procession leaving Rome by the Flaminian gate, and proceeding by way of the Milvian bridge to a sanctuary at the 5th milestone of the Via Claudia, where the flamen quirinalis sacrificed a dog and a sheep to avert blight (robigo) from the crops. [19] The litania major followed the same route as far as the Milvian bridge, when it turned off and returned to St Peter's, where mass was celebrated. This was already established as an annual festival by 598, as is shown by a document of Gregory the Great [20] that inculcates the duty of celebrating litaniam, quae major ab omnibus appellatur. The litaniae minores or rogations, held on the three days preceding Ascension Day, were first introduced into Gaul by Bishop Mamertus of Vienne (c. 470), and made binding for all Gaul by the First Council of Orléans (511). The litaniae minores were also adopted for these three days in Rome by Pope Leo III (c. 800). [1]

A description of the institution and character of the Ascensiontide rogations is given by Sidonius Apollinaris. [21] The solemnity of these, he says, was first established by Mamertus. Hitherto they had been erratic, lukewarm, and poorly attended (vagae, tepentes, infrequentesque). Those he instituted were characterized by fasting, prayers, psalms, and tears. In the Ambrosian rite the rogations take place after Ascension, and in the Spanish on the Thursday to Saturday after Whitsuntide, and in November (Synod of Girona, 517). [1]

Baroque Catholicism Edit

The element of ritual was prominent in early modern Catholicism, even after Luther's critique of the "empty rituals" in late medieval Christianity. There were processions to commemorate almost all the holiday. Though 18th-century Church reformers made strides to simplify the liturgical year and its complex web of holidays, festivals and processions, these practices remained as essential to Catholic ritual traditions in 1750 as they had been in the 15th-century. [22] After 1650 the number of processions was on the rise as processions became as essential to the observance of feast days as Catholic Mass. Some processions were tied to agricultural lifestyles, while others were pilgrimages to shrines and holy places, or to develop ties with other parishes. [23]

During the Reformation, the Herrenjahr was central to the liturgical practices of Catholiscm. Beginning with the Christmas season (from Advent to Epiphany) and followed by the feasts of Easter, Passiontide and the post-Easter feasts Pentecost (Pfingsten), Trinity Sunday, Kreuzwoche (Week of the Cross) and Corpus Christi. [24] In the early 18th century there were eleven processions of note at the village of Ettenkirch (near Lake Constance). These processions could travel to destinations as far as two hours away. Monthly processions took place around the Church, and on All Souls' Day and Palm Sunday. [23] Corpus Christi (Fronleichnam) was one of the most elaborate.

Ascension Day (Christi Himmelfahrt) was another important ceremony that held strong anti-Protestant meaning. In Herbolzheim the procession involved villagers "flying flags, crosses held high, singing and loudly recited prayers" as they passed near neighboring Protestant villages. When the Bishop of Strasbourg forbade the Ascension Day procession in 1743, believing the practice would create conflict with Protestants in neighboring towns, the Rhine Valley villagers protested. [25]

One of the effects of the Tridentine reform was to ensure that the variety of devotions that sprang up in ecclesiastically fragmented parts of Europe were connected with the rituals of the Catholic Church. Not all devotional practices were tolerated. The Josephine Reforms banned Good Friday processions with costumed figures and palmesel processions for Palm Sunday, but some still went on. On Palm Sunday villagers carried green branches re-enacting Christ's entry into Jerusalem, and Palmesel processions still took place with a representation of Christ on a donkey. [26] The parish of Niederwihl claimed possession of a piece of the True Cross and by the 18th-century had introduced new processions for the Discovery of the True Cross (May 3) and the Elevation of the True Cross (September 14). The relic would be carried by the townspeople for processions through their agricultural fields integrating a Counter-Reformation devotional theme with the ancient fertility rites of the townsfolk's rural religion. [27]

Imperial China Edit

The Story of the Stone, written in the 18th century, contains a description of the procession accompanying an Imperial Concubine:

Presently a faint sound of music was heard and the Imperial Concubine's procession at last came in sight. First came several pairs of eunuchs carrying embroidered banners. Then several more pairs with ceremonial pheasant-feather fans. Then eunuchs swinging gold-inlaid censers in which special 'palace incense' was burning. Next came a great gold-coloured 'seven phoenix' umbrella of state, hanging from its curve-topped shaft life a great drooping bell-flower. In its shadow was borne the Imperial Concubine's travelling wardrobe: her head-dress, robe, sash and shoes. Eunuch gentlemen-in-waiting followed carrying her rosary, her embroidered handkerchief, her spittoon, her fly-whisk, and various other items. Last of all, when this army of attendants had gone by, a great gold-topped palanquin with phoenixes embroidered on its yellow curtains slowly advanced on the shoulders of eight eunuch bearers. [28]


Sanchi – Buddham Dhammam Sangham

The most impressive feature, and for which this stupa is known worldwide, is the gateways, four in number, erected at the four cardinal directions. These are the latest addition to the structure and were erected in first century BCE during the reign of the Satavahanas. Satavahana rulers installed these four majestic gateways at the four cardinal points of the stupa. As per an inscription over one of the gateways, these were installed during the rule of Sri-Satkarni who has been identified with Satkarni II ruling in the first century BCE by Marshall and Dhavalikar. Four Buddha images near all the four entrances were installed during the Gupta period.

These graceful gateways or toranas are profusely carved all around with variety of motifs and narrative panels. All these four gateways are very similar in design and conception.Each gateway is formed by two square pillars, 2 feet 3 inches thick and 13 feet and 8 inches high, surmounted with heavy capitals. The capitals vary for each pillar but the height of each is 4 feet 6 inches. The total breadth of a gateway is about 7 feet.

Each pillar is crowned with a superstructure of three architraves with volute ends. The first architrave is 19 feet 9 inches in length with an arched rise of 4 inches in middle and a projection of 4 feet 5 inches on each side supported on brackets and shalabhanjika at terminals. Two more architraves are supported over the first by five uprights. These two architraves have diminishing measurements, second 2.75 feet in height and third 1.9 feet in height. Their projecting ends are also reduced to 4 feet 2 inches and 3 feet 11 inches respectively.

The intricate carvings on these gateways led Dhavalikar to suggest that it is not unlikely that these gateways were originally executed in wood and later replaced by stone. An inscription on the Southern Gateway records that it was executed by the ivory carvers of Vidisha. These ivory carvers would have utilized their skill on stone and the result was magnificent as even witnessed today, almost 2000 years later.

Northern Gateway - information of each panel

Northern Gateway – This is the gateway which you will encounter first if you approach from the ticket counter. However, it was not the main gateway in ancient times. This gateway is standing in situ and is most preserved one among all four. This is the finest and most complete gateway as well. The pillars have four-elephants capital. They have female mahouts.

The most remarkable are the shalabhanjikas – the beautiful damsels standing by or clinging to a tree. This is common motif in Indian art even in later period. Convention has it that an Ashoka tree flowers when kicked by a beautiful damsel. They are shown on most alluring postures, usually flexed, wearing heavy jewellery and complex headdress. With nestling breasts and swaying hips, they appear more sensuous. Moreover, they wear a diaphanous lower garment which reveals even the private parts. They are celestial nymphs.

East Pillar – Front Face

The top panel depicts the story of the Miracle of the Mango Tree. This is a part of the legend Miracle of Sravasti. It is said that in the presence of king Prasenjit, Buddha performed many miracles to profound the six heretical teachers and the miracle of the mango tree is one of those. In this miracle, Buddha caused a mango tree to grow to a great height. King Prasenjit could be the one among the four figures shown at bottom.

Jetavana (Story of Anathapindaka)

The panel below above probably depicts the story of Ananthapindaka. He was a wealthy merchant of Sravasti and became an ardent devotee of Buddha. He built a great monastery for Buddha for which he purchased a land from prince Jeta paying as many gold coins as would cover the entire land. These gold coins can be seen depicted as square pieces on ground. Ananthapindaka is probably the most prominent figure shown on right and prince Jeta on left. The three building are Buddha’s three favorite residences, Gandha-kuti, Kosamba-kuti and Karori-kuti.

The panel below above is identified with a similar panel at Bharhut where the latter is with inscription. However the representation at Bharhut is more convincing compared to the one at Sanchi. This panel has an imposing building with a vaulted roof and chaitya arches in front. Below the building are standing seven figures, six adults and one child. In between the building top and these figures is a broad band which probably represents the aerial path over which Buddha walked. This path is referred as chankama in inscriptions.

Prasenjit's Royal Procession

There are many panels depicting a royal procession however not can be identified with certainty. Marshall suggests that this panel depicts the royal procession of Prasenjit, the king of Kosala. The king is shown entering into his capital, Sravasti, with his retinue. Residences with multiple stories are carved in the background. From the balconies and windows of these, people are shown peeping out to witness the royal procession. On the left most side is the city gate, evident from two large bastion-like structure supporting upper stories in which people or soldiers were stationed. One horse rider has entered half into the city as half of his portion is still shaded behind the city gate.

This panel depicts the common-day life activities where we see couples sitting in garden, people enjoying elephants in a pond. One couple is shown on right, the lady is seated on the thighs of the man who is holding a cup, probably for wine. A second couple is shown seated on right near a tree. The lady is seated little far from the man. Below this scene is shown a pond in which two elephants are shown plucking flowers. Mahouts are shown seated over them, a lady is shown climbing over the left elephant’s back. Both the elephants are decorated with bells.

East Pillar –West Face

The top panel depicts Shakra’s (Indra) visit to Buddha’s Indra-shaila cave near Rajagriha. Buddha was staying in his rock-cut residence near Rajagriha when Shakra accompanied with his musicians visited Buddha. Few animals are shown nearby the cave which suggests that this residence of Buddha was nestled around wilderness. Many figures are shown standing below the cave in adoration and reverence.

Ajatshatru leaving for Jivaka

The panel below above shows a royal procession leaving from an imposing city gate. The chariot is already left the gate and led by a party of musicians in front. An elephant is following the chariot however the former is still within the city just approaching the exit gate. People are shown on upper balconies witnessing the procession. Marshall suggests that it could be representing Ajatshatru on a visit to Buddha in the mango grove of Jivaka.

Bamboo Garden of Rajagriha

The panel below above represent a bamboo garden at Rajgriha as suggested by Marshall. A Bodhi-tree is surrounded by worshippers, some are seated and some standing. All have folded their hands in reverence. There are many trees around the central Bodhi-tree which probably suggests that the tree is located inside a garden. A bamboo boundary is raised around the tree.

This robust guardian is shown wearing a dhoti which ends are tied in front and left dangling on either side. He is shown wearing heavy ornaments on his arms and a broad and heavy necklace over his chest. He is also adorned with very heavy ear-rings. He is holding a flower in his right hand while his left hand is resting over his waist. Trees are depicted in the backdrop of the panel.

East Pillar – East Face

Palmettes are raised on top of other in the middle of the pillar. This palmette chain is curtailed with a Tri-ratna symbol at the top and Buddha-pada (footprints of Buddha) at the bottom. On the side bands, jeweled necklaces are hanging over elephant-tusk like pegs. Among these necklaces, two varieties are found, one having thirteen amulets and one having seven. The thirteen amulets are Sun, Shukra, padmasara, ankushsa, Vaijyanti, pankaj, mina-mithuna, srivatsa, parashu, darpan and kamal.

Inscription

Bhagvato pamana lathi – on the east pillar – Epigraphia Indica vol II – written in Brahmi, language is Pali – Buddha’s measuring rod.

West pillar – Front Face

This panel depicts the miracle of Sankasya (Sankisa) which Buddha performed after the Miracle of Sravasti. A ladder is shown standing vertically with two Bodhi-trees one at the top and one at bottom. Various people and couples standing on either side. As per the Miracle of Sankasya, Buddha vanished after the performance of the Miracle of Sravasti, and reached the Tryastrimsha heaven to preach abhidharma to his mother, Maya, who was reborn there. He stayed there for three months and descended via a staircase of beryl at Sankasya accompanied with Shakra (Indra) and Brahma.

Marshall suggests that this panel depicts two scenes related to the life of Buddha. A chariot is shown coming out of the city gate, there is no one seated in the chariot which signifies the unseen presence of Buddha. A man is holding an umbrella above the empty seat of the chariot. A horse without any rider is shown in front of this chariot. Marshall suggests that it depicts the Four Drives of Gautama before he finally left the city in search of the eternal truth.

A Bodhi-tree is standing in the middle and surrounded by many people seated around the tree. The panel depicts the preaching of the Shakyas by Buddha in the Nyagrodha-arama in Kapilvastu. Shakyas were Buddha’s own clan and when Buddha visited them they first were not convinced of his Dharma, however Buddha won over them and then taught his doctrines.

West pillar – East Face

The panel has a stupe in upper-middle region, the stupa is very similar to Sanchi Great Stupa having a gateway and balustrade. Kinnaras, with wings and feet of a bird, are shown flying around the stupa. Below is standing a part of musicians who wear very peculiar and foreign dress, half tunic, pointed headgear and cloaks. They are playing various kinds of musical instruments. One of the instrument is a double-flute or Pan pipe which is of the Greek origin. Marshall suggests that these foreign people could be the Mallas who were living in Himalaya region however Dhavalikar identifies these people with the Shakas (Scythians) of the Tigrakhauda clan who used to wear pointed headgear. Dhavalikar states that their presence in the Buddhist panel is very enigmatic however the religion was spread wide and far and probably these foreigners, who came from north-west of India, got converted into Buddhists.

Honey bowl offering by a monkey

A very large Bodhi-tree is shown standing on the left side of the panel. Among the various man and women, there are two monkeys. One of the monkey is shown holding a bowl and offering that to the tree. This panel depicts the honey offering story where a monkey offered a bowl of honey to Buddha when the latter was in Vaishali.

This panel represents the visit of Shuddhodhana with his retinue to meet Buddha when the latter arrived at Kapilvastu after gaining enlightenment. It is mentioned that Shakyas were in dilemma on who should salute whom first as many of them were older than Buddha. Thereupon Buddha solved this difficulty by performing a miracle when he walked in mid air. Flying kinnaras are holding garlands above the Bodhi-tree in the panel.

This guardian is somewhat simpler in comparison to his counterpart on the opposite pillar. He is wearing his clothes in the same fashion as of his counterpart. His jewelry is also similar with the opposite guardian.

Architraves – Front

The topmost architrave has five stupas and two trees which probably represent seven Manushi Buddhas. The trees are Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa) and Nyagrodha (Ficus indica) which are associated with Shakyamuni and Kashyapa respectively.

On the middle architrave we have seven trees depicting the seven Manushi Buddhas. The trees are, from left, 1) Patali (Bignonia shaveolus)) of Vipashyin, 2) Pundarika (Fig) of Shikhin, 3) Shala (Shorea robusta) of Vishvabahu, 4) Shirisha (Acacia sirisa) of Krakuchchhanda, 5) Udumbara (Ficus glomerata) of Kanakamuni, 6) Nyagrodha (Ficus indica) of Kashyapa and 7) Ashvattha (Pipal) of Shakyamuni. This identification was possible after finding a similar inscribed panel at Bharhut.

The lowermost architrave depicts the story of Vessantara Jataka. In this story the Bodhisattva was born as Vessantara (Sanskrit Vishvantara) to the king Sanjaya who was ruling the Sibi kingdom. Vessantara once donated an elephant who had supernatural powers of causing rains to the Brahmins of Kalinga who were facing a drought. However this angered the Brahmins of his own kingdom and they forced the king to vanish Vessantara of the Vanka mountain. Vessantara left the city in a chariot accompanied with his wife, Maddi, and his son and a daughter. Later on the way he donated his horses and chariot to the people who asked for those. He reached mount Vanka and started living in a hermitage provided by Shakra. Later he donated his children to Brahmin, Jujuka. He also gave his wife to Shakra who, however, later returned her. Shakra also reunited Vessantara with his father. His father got back his grandchildren from Jujuka by paying him ransom money. The story narrates the compassion feeling of Bodhisattva where he donated those who were the most loved ones to him.

This whole story of Vessantara Jataka is depicted on the lowest architrave front and back, except for the right protruding end of the former. The story starts on the front right side where Vessantara is shown riding an elephant inside the city. It might be the same elephant which is donated to the Brahmins of Kalinga. Next he is shown coming out of the city gate on a chariot driven by four horses. Next he is shown with his wife, Maddi, who is carrying a child on her hips, given away his chariot and horses. The backside shows many villagers doing their daily chores like holding bows, hunting, carrying their hunt etc. Next is shown Vessantara sitting outside a hut, the hermitage on Vanka mount. Next is shown Vessantara standing with his wife and a child nearby.

The right protruding end of the lowest architrave depicts Ambulasha Jataka. As per this jataka, Buddha was born as an ascetic with whom a doe fell in love. Later it gave birth to a child who was a normal human except a horn on his overhead which he inherited from his mother. This child was named Isisinga and like his father he became an ascetic. His power rose to a great extent which disturbed Shakra in heaven above. He sent a nymph, Ambulasha, to lure Isisinga. She was successful in her mission however she kept her secret and stayed for three years with Isisinga. After three years she revealed her identity. Isisinga, being a compassionate Bodhisattva, forgave the nymph and allowed her to go to the heaven. In the panel we see an ascetic seated inside his hermit and a doe seated facing him. The doe is shown above giving birth to a child who has a horn on his forehead. Isisinga is shown on right side of the hermit, bathing in a lotus pond.

Architraves – Back

The top architrave depicts the story of Chhadanta Jataka. As per this story, Bodhisattva was born as a six-tusked elephant named Chhadanta living in a lake in Himalaya region. He had two wives, Mahasubhadda and Chullasubhadda. The latter was very jealous of the former as she thought that the former was much beloved by her husband. To teach her a lesson, Chullasubhadda prayed to Pratyeka Buddha that she should be born as a beautiful maiden married to the king of Varanasi. Her prayers were answered and she was born and married to that king. She became the most beloved queen of the king. Under a pretext of an illness she asked the king to order a hunter to bring her the tusks of the Chhadanta elephant. The king commissioned a hunter named Sonuttara for this job. The hunter wounded the elephant. Chhadanta allowed the hunter to cut his tusks because of compassion and charity. When the hunter presented the tusks to the queen, she fainted and died of remorse.

A better depiction of this story is seen on the Southern Gateway as many details of this story are omitted in the present panel, such as the hunter Sonuttara is absent in the present panel.

The middle architrave depicts two events of Buddha’s life. On left we see Sujata offering food to Buddha who is symbolized with a Bodhi-tree in the panel. Sujata is accompanied by few ladies and children in the panel. On left of this is depicted Mara’s temptation to Buddha. Mara is shown seated on a throne with his son and daughter on either side. Mara was Buddha’s cousin who put many obstacle in his path. Once he sent his six daughters to lure Buddha away from his meditation. When unsuccessful in this, he sent his army of demons to terrify Buddha. In this panel he is shown directing his army and the army is shown on his right.

The lowest architrave continues the Vessantara Jataka story of its counterpart on the front face. On the leftmost is depicted the typical life activities in and around a hermitage. Vessantara is shown seated with his wife and making offerings to the fire in front. On right he is shown donating his child to Jujuka. Further right he is shown donating his wife to Jujuka. Rightmost we see the reunion of Vessantara who is shown seated on an elephant with his wife and child.

On top of these architraves, there is Dharma-Chakra (Wheel of Law) supported on four elephants standing along the side. This Dharma-chakra is broken at present. On either side of it were standing two male guardians one of which has survived. Above the square brackets of the architraves is Tri-ratna symbol. Two winged lions are set on the two terminal ends of this top.

Inscription –

……-kapalakarisa vemalapadi…….-riya karakana cha gati-gachheya yo ito – Epigraphia Indica vol II – written in Brahmi, language is Pali


2. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Prince William is the elder son of the Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales, and is second in line to the throne.

The duke was 15 when his mother died. He went on to study at St Andrews University, where he met his future wife, Kate Middleton. The couple were married in 2011.

On his 21st birthday he was appointed a Counsellor of State - standing in for the Queen on official occasions. He and his wife had their first child, George, in July 2013, their second, Charlotte, in 2015 and third, Louis, in 2018.

The prince trained with the Army, Royal Navy and RAF before spending three years as an RAF search-and-rescue pilot with RAF Valley on Anglesey, north Wales. He also worked part-time for two years as a co-pilot with the East Anglian Air Ambulance alongside his royal duties. He left the role in July 2017 to take on more royal duties on behalf of the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh.


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The Duke had requested a repaint in military green and designed the open top rear and special 'stops' to secure his coffin.

The Queen - like all 30 guests invited to the service - will wear a face mask and will sit by herself in the quire of St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, with all mourners following Covid guidelines and remaining socially distanced.

As royal officials said tributes 'received from young and old are truly a testament to the remarkable life and lasting endeavours' of the Duke of Edinburgh, the route of the procession on Saturday in the run-up to 3pm became clear.

Other details released by Buckingham Palace in a detailed announcement at 5pm included:

Philip, who died last Friday aged 99, was the guiding force behind his funeral arrangements and, reflecting his life-long association with the Royal Navy, buglers of the Royal Marines will sound Action Stations during the service.

Philip (pictured with the Queen in 2016) was the guiding force behind his funeral arrangements

It is played on a warship to signal all hands should go to battle stations and is sometimes featured at funerals of naval men. A reduced choir of four singers will feature during the service and the guests will not sing.

Among the guests are the Duchess of Cornwall, all of the duke's grandchildren and their spouses, the children of the Queen's sister Princess Margaret and three of Philip's German relatives - Bernhard, the Hereditary Prince of Baden Donatus, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse and Prince Philipp of Hohenlohe-Langenburg.

Also invited is a close friend of the duke, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, previously known as Lady Romsey and later Lady Brabourne, who was Philip's carriage driving partner and one of his closest friends.

How Philip painstakingly planned his own funeral: Duke personally selected the regalia that will be on the altar including his RAF Wings and requested special naval war cry be played at the service

By Dan Sales and James Robinson for MailOnline

Prince Philip's extraordinary attention to detail will be on show at his funeral this Saturday as all his own minute preparations for the ceremony will be realised.

The Duke of Edinburgh's no-nonsense attitude in life will be mirrored in his death as the story of his incredible 99 years are remembered.

From the specially adapted Landrover to the naval war cry which will be played, it will be an occasion that will typify his tremendous spirit.

Perhaps the most striking part of the ceremony will come after he is lowered in his coffin into the Royal Vault.

On his own request, The Buglers of the Royal Marines will sound Action Stations in an unusual addition to the service. It is a very short horn melody that signifies a call to action on naval warships.

Though the sound is not common at funerals, it can be requested by anyone associated with the Royal Navy. It will be played near to the end of the service.

The Last Post will also be played to signify 'a soldier has gone to his final rest'.

Prince Philip joined the Royal Navy aged 17 and served on HMS Valiant during the Second World War - earning a mention in despatches for his 'bravery and enterprise' during a sea battle with the Italian fleet.

A senior Palace official said: 'Action Stations is a naval tradition and it is an announcement that would be made on a naval warship to signify that all hands, all those serving, on that warship should go into battle stations.'

Philip's medals include the following. Queen's Service Order, New Zealand On November 15, 1981, Prince Philip was awarded the Queen's Service Order by the Government of New Zealand for service to the country. The flower-shaped medal is the first worn on Prince Philip's chest. The order was established on March 13, 1975, and is used to recognise 'valuable voluntary service to the community or meritorious and faithful services to the Crown or similar services within the public sector, whether in elected or appointed office'. The order replaced the Imperial Service Order in New Zealand following a 1974 review of New Zealand's honour system. 1939-1945 Star This star is a campaign medal of the British Commonwealth awarded for service during the Second World War. It was put in place on July 8, 1943, and was awarded for specific periods of military service between September 3, 1939, and either May 8, 1945, in Europe or September 2, 1945, in the far east. Those in the Navy had to spent 180 at sea to be awarded the medal. Atlantic Star In May 1945, Prince Philip was awarded the military campaign medal the Atlantic star. It was for service during the Battle of the Atlantic - World War II's longest campaign. Africa Star Prince Philip was awarded the Africa Star on July 8, 1943, for service in Africa during the Second World War. The medal was awarded to those who served in North Africa between June 10, 1940, and May 12, 1943. Burma Star (with Pacific Rosette) In May 1945, he was awarded the Burma Star for service in the Burma Campaign in the Second World War. The Burma Star awards British and Commonwealth forces who served in the Burma Campaign from 1941 to 1945. He also wore the Pacific clasp on the Star for his service in the Pacific. Philip was the First Lieutenant of the destroyer HMS Whelp and was present in Tokyo Bay when the Japanese signed the surrender agreement with Allied forces


Contents

Berchtesgaden, Upper Bavaria (Achental), earlier Perchterscadmen, Perhtersgadem, Berchirchsgadem, Berchtoldesgadem the word underwent a Latin distortion of Old High German parach, Romance bareca 'hay shed'. After the basic meaning was forgotten, they [ who? ] added a variant word of Old High German gadem 'room, one-room hut', implying the same meaning: 'hay shed'. Cf. Old High German muosgadem 'spice room'.

There was a folk etymology that supported a derivation based on the legendary figure of Frau Perchta (Berchta), a woman (Holle < Holda 'well disposed, dear') with good and bad changing features, who was venerated on Perchtertag (Shrovetide) was sworn to during the Perchta procession. [2]

The first ever historical note dates back to 1102 and mentions the area because of its rich salt deposits. Much of Berchtesgaden's wealth has been derived from its salt mines, the first of which started operations in 1517. [3] The town served as independent Fürstpropstei until the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss in 1803. During the Napoleonic wars, Berchtesgaden changed hands a few times, such as in 1805 under the Treaty of Pressburg, when the area was ceded to Austria.

Berchtesgaden came under Bavarian rule in 1810 and became instantly popular with the Bavarian royal family, the House of Wittelsbach, who often visited Königssee and maintained a royal hunting residence in the former Augustine monastery (still used today by Franz, Duke of Bavaria). Nascent tourism started to evolve and a number of artists came to the area, which reportedly gave rise to Malereck ("painters' corner") on the shore of Königssee in nearby Ramsau bei Berchtesgaden. The most famous author who lived in Berchtesgaden was Ludwig Ganghofer.

Nazi era Edit

Adolf Hitler had been vacationing in the Berchtesgaden area since the 1920s. He purchased a home in the Obersalzberg above the town on the flank of the Hoher Goll and began extensive renovations on his Berghof in the following years. As other top Third Reich figures, such as Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Martin Bormann, Heinrich Himmler, and Albert Speer, began to frequent the area the Party began to purchase and requisition land in the Obersalzberg. [4]

In order to serve as an outpost of the German Reichskanzlei (Imperial Chancellery), Berchtesgaden and its environs (Stanggass) saw substantial expansion of offices, security, and support services, mainly on the Obersalzberg. Included in the town were a new railway station, with a reception area for Hitler and his guests, and an adjacent post office. The Berchtesgadener Hof Hotel, where famous visitors such as Neville Chamberlain and David Lloyd George stayed, was substantially upgraded.

Even though a feared Alpine Fortress last stand of the Nazi Regime in the Alps failed to materialize late in World War II, the Allies launched a devastating air raid on the Berchtesgaden area in the spring of 1945. The 25 April bombing of Obersalzberg did little damage to the town. On 4 May, forward elements of the 7th Infantry Regiment of the 3rd Infantry Division arrived [5] and received the town's surrender. [6]

Post–World War II Edit

After the war, Berchtesgaden became a military zone and most of its buildings were requisitioned by the U.S. Army. Hotel Platterhof was rebuilt and renamed the General Walker Hotel in 1952. [7] It served as an integral part of the U.S. Armed Forces Recreation Centers for the duration of the Cold War and beyond. [8] The remnants of homes of former Nazi leaders were all demolished in the early postwar years, though traces of some remained. In 1995, fifty years after the end of World War II and five years after German reunification, the AFRC Berchtesgaden was turned over to Bavarian authorities to facilitate military spending reductions mandated within the Base Realignment and Closure program by the US Congress and Pentagon during the administration of President Bill Clinton. [8] The General Walker Hotel was demolished in 2000–2001.

In 1986, Berchtesgaden was a first-round candidate city to host the XVI Olympic Winter Games to be held in 1992. The vote eventually went to Albertville, France, in October of that year. [9]

Berchtesgaden today Edit

The Hotel Türken, which was near the Nazi buildings and was often used by the SS and then by the Generalmajor of the Police, was badly damaged in 1945. It was rebuilt in 1950 and reopened as a hotel before Christmas. [10] Visitors can still explore the historic underground hallways and tunnels that had been used by the Nazis. [11] [12] [13]

In 1972, local government reform united the then independent municipalities of Salzberg, Maria Gern and Au (consisting of Oberau and Unterau) under the administration of the town of Berchtesgaden. Another suggested reform uniting all remaining five municipalities in the Berchtesgaden valley (Bischofswiesen, Ramsau, Marktschellenberg and Schönau) failed to gain enough popular support it passed in Berchtesgaden but failed everywhere else.

The Berchtesgaden National Park was established in 1978 and has gradually become one of Berchtesgaden's largest draws. Mass tourism is confined to a few popular spots, leaving the rest to nature-seekers. Other tourist draws are the Königssee, the salt mine, the Kehlsteinhaus, open seasonally as a restaurant, and the Dokumentationszentrum Obersalzberg museum about the area's history, operated by the Munich Institut für Zeitgeschichte since 1999. [14] [15] [16]

Recreational and competitive sports have grown in importance. The town's ski slope is popular. The Königssee bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track has hosted ski-running and a number of international events and competitions. Berchtesgaden's most famous sports personality is Georg Hackl, a multiple Olympic medal winner. The city is home to the International Luge Federation (FIL).

Unlike the northern part of Berchtesgadener Land and the Salzburg area, Berchtesgaden has virtually no manufacturing industry.

The Bavarian state government facilitated the erection of a hotel, which opened in 2005 and is operated by the InterContinental Hotels Group. [15] Since May 2015, the hotel has been the Kempinski Berchtesgaden. [17] [18]

The municipality counts the following villages which are (Ortsteil): Am Etzerschlößl, Anzenbach, Hintergern, Metzenleiten, Mitterbach, Oberau, Obergern, Obersalzberg, Resten, Unterau, Untersalzberg I, Untersalzberg II, and Vordergern.


Hale Koa History

The Hale Koa Hotel celebrated its grand opening on October 25, 1975 with what is now its Ilima Tower. The Hotel and the site where it is located both reflect a rich history of caring for members of the Defense Community and, prior to the establishment of Fort DeRussy, played an important role in early Hawaiian culture. Today, more than one million military personnel and dependents enjoy the Hale Koa&rsquos hospitality each year.

The Army&rsquos Outstanding Soldiers of the Year were flown in from all over the world to be among the first guests at the opening, which included a traditional Hawaiian blessing complete with a royal procession and evening festivities with many island dignitaries in attendance.

In the early days of Hawaii, the area was named Kalia and was a thriving community with farmers and fishermen. It featured fish ponds and taro patches, all of which provided for the community and Ali&rsquoi (royalty). In 1906, the U.S. War Department acquired a 72-acre parcel of land which was named Fort DeRussy, in honor of Brigadier General R. E. DeRussy of the Army Corps of Engineers. The fish ponds were filled in with dredged material, and the area was transformed from wetlands to solid ground.

Battery Randolph along with Battery Dudley (since demolished) were completed in 1911 as part of the Army&rsquos defenses for Honolulu Harbor. Battery Randolph&rsquos extremely solid structure with walls 20 feet thick proved too difficult to demolish and is now an Army Museum.

Fort DeRussy played an important role from World War I through the Korean and Vietnam Wars, remembered by many as an area for recreation, lodging, and leisure for all service members. It was designated an Armed Forces Recreation Area in 1950.

In 1995, on the twentieth anniversary of its opening, the Hale Koa Hotel celebrated the completion of the Maile Tower, increasing the guestrooms from 420 to 818 and adding other amenities for the military guests and visitors to relax and enjoy.

A complete renovation of the Ilima Tower in 2010 included banquet facilities, restaurants and kitchen facilities. Most recently, in 2019, projects totaling over $100 million were completed, including a complete renovation of the Maile Tower, a new state of the art ocean side pool complex and many infrastructure updates to the facilities.

From its royal beginning, the Hale Koa Hotel continues to exceed expectations. Leaving behind the concept of separate dining and sleeping areas for enlisted and officers, the Hale Koa Hotel opened as it remains today, an all-ranks, all-services hotel committed to providing an exceptional resort experience without regard to status. Its mission remains unchanged: To provide a first class hotel and recreation facility at affordable prices for military members and their families.

The Hale Koa Hotel is operated by the Department of the Army under the US Army Installation Management Command&rsquos G9 Section. Designated an Armed Forces Recreation Center, this facility is totally self-supporting with no use of taxpayer funds. All expenses including salaries, operating expenses and even capital improvement projects are paid with revenue generated by the hotel&rsquos operations.


Harry 'couldn't wait' to leave UK to return to Meghan after Queen snub

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Prince Harry criticised for 'defensive position' by expert

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Prince Harry is believed to have flown back to the US on Tuesday, missing the Queen's 95th birthday yesterday. A source has said the Duke is pleased to have returned home to his family. But by flying back so soon, Harry was unable to support the Queen in person as she spent her first birthday without Prince Philip, her husband of 73 years, by her side.

Trending

An insider told US Weekly, an American magazine, Harry was keen to get back to his wife in the States.

The source said: &ldquoHarry couldn&rsquot wait to return to his heavily pregnant wife and Archie.

&ldquo[He] is happy to be back in Montecito.&rdquo

The Duke had spent just over a week in the UK, having landed in London on April 12.

His flight back to LA came a day before the Queen's birthday.

Her Majesty turned 95 yesterday and spent a quiet day with close family.

The Queen issued a moving statement thanking the public for all the "support and kindness" shown since the death of her husband, Prince Philip.

In a statement posted on Twitter, she said: &ldquoI have, on the occasion of my 95th birthday today, received many messages of good wishes, which I very much appreciate.

&ldquoWhile as a family we are in a period of great sadness, it has been a comfort to us all to see and to hear the tributes paid to my husband, from those within the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth and around the world.

"My family and I would like to thank you for all the support and kindness shown to us in recent days.

"We have been deeply touched, and continue to be reminded that Philip had such an extraordinary impact on countless people throughout his life.&rdquo

FOLLOW EXPRESS.CO.UK FOR LIVE UPDATES:

Prince Harry and William's feud has been branded 'childish' (Image: Getty)

Diane Abbott has suggested there will be a &ldquobig public debate&rdquo on the future of the Royal Family after Queen Elizabeth II&rsquos death.

Her Majesty, 95, celebrated her birthday on Wednesday and has no immediate plans to step down from the throne, according to reports.

But experts, and now the Labour MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington, have suggested the monarchy may end with the Queen&rsquos death or abdication.

Speaking to Vanity Fair, Ms Abbott said she believes &ldquothe monarchy as we know it will last as long as the Queen is alive&rdquo.

Experts and royal fans wondered whether the Prince Harry would stay for his grandmother&rsquos birthday on Wednesday. However, Harry reportedly landed back in the US on Tuesday.

A source told US Weekly that the Duke of Sussex left a present on behalf of him and his wife.

They said: &ldquoPrince Harry got to say goodbye to the Queen before her birthday and he left her a gift and card from him and Meghan.&rdquo

The card reportedly had a message honouring Her Majesty&rsquos legacy but the birthday gift is unknown.

Prince William and Kate have emerged as 'role models' according to an expert (Image: Getty)

Prince Harry and Prince William have been compared to &ldquowounded animals&rdquo after the reported rift between the two brothers.

Relations between the Sussexes and the Cambridges have reportedly been tense since Prince Harry and Meghan Markle&rsquos tell-all interview.

Prince Harry also told the US chat show host that his brother and father are &ldquotrapped&rdquo in the Firm.

Ms Pasternak told Vanity Fair: &ldquoBoth sides are like wounded animals. Harry said there&rsquos been an awful lot of hurt. Well, there&rsquos been an awful lot of hurt now on the side of the Windsors from this interview.&rdquo

Mike Tindall described the atmosphere at Prince Philip's funeral as being "eerie", during the most recent episode of his podcast 'The Good, The Bad and The Rugby.'

Reflecting on the sad day, Mike commented on the atmosphere caused by the strict Covid regulations, but believed the Duke of Edinburgh would have still enjoyed his send off.

The former England rugby international said: "If I look back on the day, I think, as sort of eerie as it was with no crowds and the social distancing and the way everything was, I think it was the perfect day - how he would have liked it, if that makes any sense whatsoever. No fuss. Get on with it.&rdquo

Related articles

Prince Harry&rsquos short visit to the UK for his grandfather&rsquos funeral is likely to have opened the door for future conversations, a royal biographer has claimed.

The Duke of Sussex reportedly met the Queen twice for private meetings during his visit to the UK for Prince Philip&rsquos funeral.

Royal author Omid Scobie revealed that sources close to Harry said hehad meetings with his grandmother.

Quoting a source, Mr Scobie said the trip &ldquobroke the ice&rdquo for future conversations.

&ldquoThis trip was to honour the life of his grandfather and support his grandmother and relatives,&rdquo the source said.

The Royal Family has been warned that Prince Harry will not allow the monarchy to "use him" to improve their PR according to an etiquette expert.

Elaine Swann told Us Weekly that Prince Harry's eyes are wide open to the "machine" behind the Royal Family.

The etiquette expert added that she believed Prince William and the Duke of Sussex's conversation following Prince Philip was genuine rather than staged.

Kate Middleton and Prince William's youngest child celebrates his third birthday on Friday.

To mark the day, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge shared an adorable snap of Louis.

The sweet picture was taken by keen amateur photographer Kate at Kensington Palace on Wednesday before Louis attended his first day at nursery school.

The cute royal, who is sitting on a red bike, does not appear to have any first day nerves as he grins for the camera.

Manon Dark takes over from Bill McLoughlin

Royal Family Live: Who is Prince Louis? (Image: Express)

Thursday 22 April

Prince Harry and William's feud may never be resolved as the issues caused by the royal row "run so deep", an insider has claimed.

Not only does the argument run so deep between the two but one family friend has claimed there will be no quick fix for the pair.

While Harry's return to the UK has been seen as the first step in healing relations, the insider warned there is a long road ahead for the Royal Family.

Although the brothers were seen talking following the funeral on Saturday, the insider warned issues can always resurface within the Firm.

Meghan Markle and Prince Harry will struggle to repair relations with the Firm as some members of the Royal Family fear the Sussexes will leak conversations.

According to one expert, Harry and Meghan have sparked "big fears" with the Duke of Cambridge and Prince Charles.

Although it is uncertain how badly the tell-all interview with Oprah Winfrey harmed their relationship with the Firm, commentator Phil Dampier claimed William and Charles fear private conversations may be misconstrued.

Mr Dampier warned these fears may now make it hard to heal the wounds in the long-term for the Sussexes.

Prince Philip had a very sweet tradition on the Queen's birthday, according to an article from 1976.

The Duke of Edinburgh and the monarch were married for more than 73 years.

And according to an article published in the Montreal Gazette in 1976, Philip always left a flower on his wife's breakfast tray on her birthday.

The article, which was shared on Twitter by royal expert Victoria Arbiter, reads: "Birthday morning, the Queen will find a flower on her breakfast tray &ndash a token her husband never forgets."

The article also gives an insight into how the monarch was spending her 50th birthday.

It continues: "There will be gifts from members of the family - her sons Prince Charles, heir to the throne, and Prince Andrew as well as Edward, her daughter, Princess Anne, wife of Capt. Mark Phillips, Queen Mother Elizabeth and others.

Royal Family Live: The Queen turned 95 on Wednesday (Image: GETTY)

Prince William is believed to have given Kate Middleton a special "push present" after she gave birth to Prince Louis.

Louis turns three years old tomorrow and it will be his second birthday in a row for which the country is under coronavirus restrictions.

It is expected that Kate will release a new picture of Louis, who hasn&rsquot been seen since the Cambridges&rsquo adorable family photograph was released at Christmas.

Kate and William&rsquos youngest child is currently fifth-in-line to the throne, the first royal boy to come after his sister in the line of succession.

According to OK! magazine, William gave her a citrine ring as a &ldquopush present&rdquo, a gift given to a mother who has just given birth, usually by their partner as a token of appreciation for the difficulty of pregnancy and birth.

Meghan Markle spoke to Prince Harry every day while he was in the UK in the lead up to Prince Philip's funeral.

According to sources, Meghan knew how difficult the trip had been for Harry, who has now returned to the US.

With Meghan pregnant with their second child, Harry was concerned over leaving her with Archie for so long on her own.

Indeed, with Harry returning to the UK for the first time since the bombshell interview with Oprah Winfrey, the Duke did not want to leave his family.

Royal news: William and Kate returned to duties today (Image: GETTY)

The Queen will spend weeks replying to messages about Prince Philip from world leaders, according to a royal expert.

Royal author Robert Jobson said the monarch will work from Windsor Castle, where she has been based for much of the pandemic.

Mr Jobson said Her Majesty will spend the coming weeks personally replying to messages from foreign heads of state and leading political figures following the death of her beloved husband the Duke of Edinburgh.

Prince Philip may not have been allowed to watch Meghan Markle and Prince Harry's Oprah interview live, because he was in hospital at the time and it would not have done "his heart any good".

Pod Save the Queen is hosted by Ann Gripper and features Daily Mirror royal editor Russell Myers.

While Mr Myers has claimed Philip thought the Oprah interview was &ldquocomplete madness&rdquo, the pair have also wondered whether he would have been allowed to watch it.

In an episode of the podcast just days before the bombshell interview aired, Ms Gripper commented that it would not be good for his heart.

She said: &ldquoI would imagine he would not be allowed to watch ITV on Monday night, because it will not do his heart any good at all ‒ so, stay away from the Oprah interview!&rdquo

Royal Family Live: Prince Philip's timeline (Image: Express)

Prince Harry has narrated a video message for a non-profit conservation organisation to mark Earth Day.

The Duke of Sussex narrated the video message, titled Hope Starts Here, for African Parks to mark Earth Day.

The non-profit organisation tweeted: "This EarthDay, Prince Harry & African Parks shine a light on the role effectively managed protected areas play in preserving biodiversity & in delivering benefits to local communities in a special re-release of the video 'Hope Starts Here'."

In the video, Harry says: "African Parks was founded in 2000 to effectively manage Africa's protected areas.

"With 19 parks under management in 11 countries, our footprint has scaled to almost 15 million hectares.

"These vital landscapes are helping to safeguard Africa's biodiversity.

"Serving as a foundation for a healthy planet and delivering benefits to hundreds of thousands of people."

Kate, the Duchess of Cambridge has been hailed as "one of the few" people able to act as peacemaker between Prince Harry and Prince William by royal insider Katie Nicholl.

Ms Nicholl was invited onto Entertainment Tonight to discuss hopes of a royal reconciliation between the estranged brothers.

The Palace insider identified Kate, Duchess of Cambridge as "one of the few people" able to bring Princes Harry and Prince William together. Kate, William, and Prince Harry were snapped walking together during the funeral of Prince Philip before the Duchess stepped back to give the pair some space, seen by royal watchers as a subtle attempt at peacemaking.

Ms Nicholl said: "It has always been my understanding that behind the scenes Kate has tried very hard to arrange a rapprochement and act as a peacemaker between William and Harry."

Royal family 'to step up and support Queen' says expert

A royal expert has explained why the decision for all male royals to wear morning suits rather than military uniform for Prince Philip's funeral may have had nothing to do with Prince Harry.

Members of the Royal Family were able to bid a final farewell to the late Prince Philip on Saturday, who died just weeks before his 100th birthday.

Before the funeral, there had been much speculation over whether the men would wear military uniform, as such a move would have seen Prince Harry stick out like a sore thumb as he is no longer allowed to wear official military dress having been stripped of his honorary military titles.

Royal biographer Robert Jobson told Express.co.uk: "I can see why people think that, but actually it may well have been not the case.

"They were in mourning suits. If you remember at Diana&rsquos funeral they were just in casual suits.

"It wasn&rsquot a state funeral so you don&rsquot require military uniform."

Bill McLoughlin takes over from Emily Ferguson.

The Royal Family tree (Image: Express)

Prince Louis may delight royal fans with an appearance online tomorrow, according to a royal expert.

Kate and Prince William are aware of how welcomed and anticipated are the pictures of their children, usually released on their birthdays or during the festive period, according to royal expert Richard Fitzwilliams.

And he believes the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge may decide to publicly mark the third birthday of Prince Louis tomorrow, just after the end of the period of royal mourning in the wake of Prince Philip's death.

He told Express.co.uk: "The tradition of releasing a photograph of royal children, which William and Kate have continued and which marks an important way in which we can see them growing up, is a marvellous one.

"Kate has proved herself a talented photographer too. The period of royal mourning will last until the day before Louis&rsquos third birthday.

"It is therefore likely that we will see a photograph of him if this is thought appropriate.

Prince Harry is understood to have returned home on Tuesday (Image: Getty)

Prince William and Prince Harry naturally "drifted to each other" at the end of the service, royal author Robert Lacey noted.

The expert added this behaviour led him to think separating the brothers during the public procession ahead of the funeral was not the best choice to make.

He told People magazine: "The procession choreography, in retrospect, was a mistake. As we saw, they could have walked side-by-side quite happily after all.

"What pleased me afterwards was that it all seemed so totally natural, and they drifted to each other like the old days."

Meghan and Prince Harry's tell-all interview with Oprah left the Royal Family and Buckingham Palace reeling. And, more than a month later, people still feel "hurt and very wary" of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, according to sources.

One royal insider said: "No one should underestimate the damage done by that Oprah interview. The fact of them leaving is sad but wouldn&rsquot have been such a problem had they gone about it in a different way.

"The interview was disgraceful on so many fronts. Not just what Harry - and Meghan - said about their own family.

"But also the way in which they attacked every decent person who had worked for them and tried to support them.&rdquo

The insider also told Mail+: &ldquoThere is a lot of anger about that. It is all so sad but. also very damaging."

Prince Harry's ongoing feud with older brother Prince William has been branded "childish" by a royal expert, as he reflects on the pair's relationship at Prince Philip's funeral.

The two brothers were reunited face-to-face for the first time in over a year on Saturday, as they both attended their grandfather's funeral. William and Harry did not stand shoulder-to-shoulder as they walked behind the Duke of Edinburgh's coffin, as their cousin Peter Phillips stood in between them. Royal biographer Robert Jobson has said the move to use Peter as a "referee" was rather "childish".

The expert told Express.co.uk: "Clearly a decision was taken like that and frankly I think if they need a referee between them then it is rather childish.

"They should have been there solely for their grandfather. It left it open to more ridicule really."

Harry and William's relationship remains tense, according to experts (Image: Getty)

The Queen and the Duke of Cambridge will face a similar future which Charles will miss out on, as a royal expert points out a key similarity between the pair.

Eminent royal biographer Robert Jobson said the two senior royals are both set to have "relatively long reigns", unlike Prince Charles, who is currently second in line to the throne.

The Queen has so far enjoyed the longest reign in British history, having spent 68 years on the throne.

The Queen will be succeeded by her eldest son Prince Charles, 72, though because of his age he is not likely to have a long reign.

His son Prince William, 38, on the other hand, could expect to stay on the throne for several decades.

As a result, Mr Jobson pointed out the Queen and Prince William having something in common.

He told Express.co.uk: "I think we will see more of William. What you&rsquove got with William and the Queen is that they will both probably have relatively long reigns.

"We don&rsquot know how old the Prince of Wales will live to, hopefully it will be a long time. But his reign will probably be no more than 10 years - like Henry VIII, Edward VII.

"Whatever happens William is probably going to have a longer reign."

Gayle King rejected claims that the Royal Family were a "tourist trap" and branded a TV star a "cranky American" in a rant about Meghan Markle and Prince Harry.

The US journalist is a vocal supporter of the Sussexes and is known to be within their inner circle.

King refuted Stephen Colbert&rsquos claim that the Royal Family was &ldquojust a tourist trap&rdquo and &ldquoan affront to everything this country stands for&rdquo &ndash referring to the US.

She called him a &ldquocranky American&rdquo and stated it was Britain&rsquos &ldquoculture&rdquo before speaking out about why the future Duchess was &ldquounexpected&rdquo.

Prince William was given weekly mentoring by the Queen to prepare him for his future role as king.

As a young man, the Duke of Cambridge would visit his grandmother at Windsor Castle every Sunday where the Queen gave advice to young William over tea and cakes. Speaking to OK! magazine royal expert, Katie Nicholl, told of how the Queen wanted to prepare William for his future role.

Ms Nicholl said: &ldquoAfterwards, he would have one-on-one time with his grandmother to talk about whatever was on his mind. She was there for him to unload on &ndash but those sessions were also an opportunity for her to mentor and teach him, as her grandfather, George V, did with her.

&ldquoThey became incredibly close and as his respect for her grew he began to embrace his destiny.&rdquo

Meghan Markle and Prince Harry, a romantic timeline (Image: Express)

The Queen is currently Britain's longest-serving monarch and will celebrate her Platinum Jubilee next year.

Her Majesty ascended the throne when she was just 27 and has dedicated her life to unwavering public duty.

Commenting on the Queen's age and decades of service to the crown, a royal expert has said he believes the Queen should be allowed to retire from public life.

Eminent royal biographer Robert Jobson has said in his opinion, the Queen should be allowed to take a step back and enjoy her final years if she wants to.

He told Express.co.uk that while the issue of retirement is "a matter for the Queen", he believes Her Majesty should be allowed to retire.

He said: "Do I personally think the Queen should carry on? No, I don't. I think that she should be allowed to potter around in the country house and do what she wants.

"If she wants to retire then she should be allowed in my opinion. It's like we've got retired Pope's now.

"I think that it is a job that involves a lot of active mental capacity which she has been incredible at. But we can't fool ourselves that she is indestructible or some sort of super-super-human."

Kate and Prince William have demonstrated to be the perfect Queen Consort and King in the making with their behaviour over the past two weeks, according to royal commentator Richard Fitzwilliams.

He said: "William and Kate are exemplary in their roles."

Prince Charles has been temporarily staying at his Welsh cottage to grieve the death of his father, according to reports.

The Prince of Wales reportedly left for the Llwynywermod estate in Llandovery, Wales, after the funeral.

A source told the Daily Mail that Charles &ldquowanted to reflect alone&rdquo and said there is &ldquono better place for Charles to come to terms with his grief and start to think about his future&rdquo.

Llwynywermod is the Welsh home of Prince Charles and Camilla, the Duchess of Cornwall.

The fully sustainable three-bedroom residence has been a country retreat for the couple since March 2007.


Contents

George was born on 3 June 1865, in Marlborough House, London. He was the second son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, and Alexandra, Princess of Wales. His father was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and his mother was the eldest daughter of King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark. He was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Longley. [1]

As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was little expectation that George would become king. He was third in line to the throne, after his father and elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. George was only 17 months younger than Albert Victor, and the two princes were educated together. John Neale Dalton was appointed as their tutor in 1871. Neither Albert Victor nor George excelled intellectually. [2] As their father thought that the navy was "the very best possible training for any boy", [3] in September 1877, when George was 12 years old, both brothers joined the cadet training ship HMS Britannia at Dartmouth, Devon. [4]

For three years from 1879, the royal brothers served on HMS Bacchante, accompanied by Dalton. They toured the colonies of the British Empire in the Caribbean, South Africa and Australia, and visited Norfolk, Virginia, as well as South America, the Mediterranean, Egypt, and East Asia. In 1881 on a visit to Japan, George had a local artist tattoo a blue and red dragon on his arm, [5] and was received in an audience by the Emperor Meiji George and his brother presented Empress Haruko with two wallabies from Australia. [6] Dalton wrote an account of their journey entitled The Cruise of HMS Bacchante. [7] Between Melbourne and Sydney, Dalton recorded a sighting of the Flying Dutchman, a mythical ghost ship. [8] When they returned to Britain, the Queen complained that her grandsons could not speak French or German, and so they spent six months in Lausanne in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to learn another language. [9] After Lausanne, the brothers were separated Albert Victor attended Trinity College, Cambridge, while George continued in the Royal Navy. He travelled the world, visiting many areas of the British Empire. During his naval career he commanded Torpedo Boat 79 in home waters, then HMS Thrush on the North America and West Indies Station. His last active service was in command of HMS Melampus in 1891–92. From then on, his naval rank was largely honorary. [10]

As a young man destined to serve in the navy, Prince George served for many years under the command of his uncle, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, who was stationed in Malta. There, he grew close to and fell in love with his cousin, Princess Marie of Edinburgh. His grandmother, father and uncle all approved the match, but his mother and aunt—the Princess of Wales and Maria Alexandrovna, Duchess of Edinburgh—opposed it. The Princess of Wales thought the family was too pro-German, and the Duchess of Edinburgh disliked England. The Duchess, the only daughter of Alexander II of Russia, resented the fact that, as the wife of a younger son of the British sovereign, she had to yield precedence to George's mother, the Princess of Wales, whose father had been a minor German prince before being called unexpectedly to the throne of Denmark. Guided by her mother, Marie refused George when he proposed to her. She married Ferdinand, the future King of Romania, in 1893. [11]

In November 1891, George's elder brother, Albert Victor, became engaged to his second cousin once removed Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, known as "May" within the family. [12] Her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck (a member of a morganatic, cadet branch of the House of Württemberg), and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a male-line granddaughter of King George III and a first cousin of Queen Victoria. [13]

On 14 January 1892, six weeks after the formal engagement, Albert Victor died of pneumonia, leaving George second in line to the throne, and likely to succeed after his father. George had only just recovered from a serious illness himself, after being confined to bed for six weeks with typhoid fever, the disease that was thought to have killed his grandfather Prince Albert. [14] Queen Victoria still regarded Princess May as a suitable match for her grandson, and George and May grew close during their shared period of mourning. [15]

A year after Albert Victor's death, George proposed to May and was accepted. They married on 6 July 1893 at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace, London. Throughout their lives, they remained devoted to each other. George was, on his own admission, unable to express his feelings easily in speech, but they often exchanged loving letters and notes of endearment. [16]

The death of his elder brother effectively ended George's naval career, as he was now second in line to the throne, after his father. [17] George was created Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killarney by Queen Victoria on 24 May 1892, [18] and received lessons in constitutional history from J. R. Tanner. [19]

The Duke and Duchess of York had five sons and a daughter. Randolph Churchill claimed that George was a strict father, to the extent that his children were terrified of him, and that George had remarked to the Earl of Derby: "My father was frightened of his mother, I was frightened of my father, and I am damned well going to see to it that my children are frightened of me." In reality, there is no direct source for the quotation and it is likely that George's parenting style was little different from that adopted by most people at the time. [20] Whether this was the case or not, his children did seem to resent his strict nature, Prince Henry going as far as to describe him as a "terrible father" in later years. [21]

They lived mainly at York Cottage, [22] a relatively small house in Sandringham, Norfolk, where their way of life mirrored that of a comfortable middle-class family rather than royalty. [23] George preferred a simple, almost quiet, life, in marked contrast to the lively social life pursued by his father. His official biographer, Harold Nicolson, later despaired of George's time as Duke of York, writing: "He may be all right as a young midshipman and a wise old king, but when he was Duke of York . he did nothing at all but kill [i.e. shoot] animals and stick in stamps." [24] George was an avid stamp collector, which Nicolson disparaged, [25] but George played a large role in building the Royal Philatelic Collection into the most comprehensive collection of United Kingdom and Commonwealth stamps in the world, in some cases setting record purchase prices for items. [26]

In October 1894, George's maternal uncle-by-marriage, Tsar Alexander III of Russia, died. At the request of his father, "out of respect for poor dear Uncle Sasha's memory", George joined his parents in St Petersburg for the funeral. [27] He and his parents remained in Russia for the wedding a week later of the new Russian emperor, his cousin Nicholas II, to another one of George's first cousins, Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine, who had once been considered as a potential bride for George's elder brother. [28]

As Duke of York, George carried out a wide variety of public duties. On the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901, George's father ascended the throne as King Edward VII. [29] George inherited the title of Duke of Cornwall, and for much of the rest of that year, he was known as the Duke of Cornwall and York. [30]

In 1901, the Duke and Duchess toured the British Empire. Their tour included Gibraltar, Malta, Port Said, Aden, Ceylon, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, South Africa, Canada, and the Colony of Newfoundland. The tour was designed by Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain with the support of Prime Minister Lord Salisbury to reward the Dominions for their participation in the South African War of 1899–1902. George presented thousands of specially designed South African War medals to colonial troops. In South Africa, the royal party met civic leaders, African leaders, and Boer prisoners, and was greeted by elaborate decorations, expensive gifts, and fireworks displays. Despite this, not all residents responded favourably to the tour. Many white Cape Afrikaners resented the display and expense, the war having weakened their capacity to reconcile their Afrikaner-Dutch culture with their status as British subjects. Critics in the English-language press decried the enormous cost at a time when families faced severe hardship. [31]

In Australia, the Duke opened the first session of the Australian Parliament upon the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia. [32] In New Zealand, he praised the military values, bravery, loyalty, and obedience to duty of New Zealanders, and the tour gave New Zealand a chance to show off its progress, especially in its adoption of up-to-date British standards in communications and the processing industries. The implicit goal was to advertise New Zealand's attractiveness to tourists and potential immigrants, while avoiding news of growing social tensions, by focusing the attention of the British press on a land few knew about. [33] On his return to Britain, in a speech at Guildhall, London, George warned of "the impression which seemed to prevail among [our] brethren across the seas, that the Old Country must wake up if she intends to maintain her old position of pre-eminence in her colonial trade against foreign competitors." [34]

On 9 November 1901, George was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. [35] [36] King Edward wished to prepare his son for his future role as king. In contrast to Edward himself, whom Queen Victoria had deliberately excluded from state affairs, George was given wide access to state documents by his father. [17] [37] George in turn allowed his wife access to his papers, [38] as he valued her counsel and she often helped write her husband's speeches. [39] As Prince of Wales, he supported reforms in naval training, including cadets being enrolled at the ages of twelve and thirteen, and receiving the same education, whatever their class and eventual assignments. The reforms were implemented by the then Second (later First) Sea Lord, Sir John Fisher. [40]

From November 1905 to March 1906, George and May toured British India, where he was disgusted by racial discrimination and campaigned for greater involvement of Indians in the government of the country. [41] The tour was almost immediately followed by a trip to Spain for the wedding of King Alfonso XIII to Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, a first cousin of George, at which the bride and groom narrowly avoided assassination. [42] A week after returning to Britain, George and May travelled to Norway for the coronation of King Haakon VII, George's cousin and brother-in-law, and Queen Maud, George's sister. [43]

On 6 May 1910, Edward VII died, and George became king. He wrote in his diary,

I have lost my best friend and the best of fathers . I never had a [cross] word with him in my life. I am heart-broken and overwhelmed with grief but God will help me in my responsibilities and darling May will be my comfort as she has always been. May God give me strength and guidance in the heavy task which has fallen on me [44]

George had never liked his wife's habit of signing official documents and letters as "Victoria Mary" and insisted she drop one of those names. They both thought she should not be called Queen Victoria, and so she became Queen Mary. [45] Later that year, a radical propagandist, Edward Mylius, published a lie that George had secretly married in Malta as a young man, and that consequently his marriage to Queen Mary was bigamous. The lie had first surfaced in print in 1893, but George had shrugged it off as a joke. In an effort to kill off rumours, Mylius was arrested, tried and found guilty of criminal libel, and was sentenced to a year in prison. [46]

George objected to the anti-Catholic wording of the Accession Declaration that he would be required to make at the opening of his first parliament. He made it known that he would refuse to open parliament unless it was changed. As a result, the Accession Declaration Act 1910 shortened the declaration and removed the most offensive phrases. [47]

George and Mary's coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 22 June 1911, [17] and was celebrated by the Festival of Empire in London. In July, the King and Queen visited Ireland for five days they received a warm welcome, with thousands of people lining the route of their procession to cheer. [48] [49] Later in 1911, the King and Queen travelled to India for the Delhi Durbar, where they were presented to an assembled audience of Indian dignitaries and princes as the Emperor and Empress of India on 12 December 1911. George wore the newly created Imperial Crown of India at the ceremony, and declared the shifting of the Indian capital from Calcutta to Delhi. He was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar. They travelled throughout the sub-continent, and George took the opportunity to indulge in big game hunting in Nepal, shooting 21 tigers, 8 rhinoceroses and a bear over 10 days. [50] He was a keen and expert marksman. [51] On 18 December 1913, he shot over a thousand pheasants in six hours [52] at Hall Barn, the home of Lord Burnham, although even George had to acknowledge that "we went a little too far" that day. [53]

National politics Edit

George inherited the throne at a politically turbulent time. [54] Lloyd George's People's Budget had been rejected the previous year by the Conservative and Unionist-dominated House of Lords, contrary to the normal convention that the Lords did not veto money bills. [55] Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith had asked the previous king to give an undertaking that he would create sufficient Liberal peers to force the budget through the House. Edward had reluctantly agreed, provided the Lords rejected the budget after two successive general elections. After the January 1910 general election, the Conservative peers allowed the budget, for which the government now had an electoral mandate, to pass without a vote. [56]

Asquith attempted to curtail the power of the Lords through constitutional reforms, which were again blocked by the Upper House. A constitutional conference on the reforms broke down in November 1910 after 21 meetings. Asquith and Lord Crewe, Liberal leader in the Lords, asked George to grant a dissolution, leading to a second general election, and to promise to create sufficient Liberal peers if the Lords blocked the legislation again. [57] If George refused, the Liberal government would otherwise resign, which would have given the appearance that the monarch was taking sides—with "the peers against the people"—in party politics. [58] The King's two private secretaries, the Liberal Lord Knollys and the Unionist Lord Stamfordham, gave George conflicting advice. [59] [60] Knollys advised George to accept the Cabinet's demands, while Stamfordham advised George to accept the resignation. [59] Like his father, George reluctantly agreed to the dissolution and creation of peers, although he felt his ministers had taken advantage of his inexperience to browbeat him. [61] After the December 1910 general election, the Lords let the bill pass on hearing of the threat to swamp the house with new peers. [62] The subsequent Parliament Act 1911 permanently removed—with a few exceptions—the power of the Lords to veto bills. The King later came to feel that Knollys had withheld information from him about the willingness of the opposition to form a government if the Liberals had resigned. [63]

The 1910 general elections had left the Liberals as a minority government dependent upon the support of the Irish Nationalist Party. As desired by the Nationalists, Asquith introduced legislation that would give Ireland Home Rule, but the Conservatives and Unionists opposed it. [17] [64] As tempers rose over the Home Rule Bill, which would never have been possible without the Parliament Act, relations between the elderly Knollys and the Conservatives became poor, and he was pushed into retirement. [65] Desperate to avoid the prospect of civil war in Ireland between Unionists and Nationalists, George called a meeting of all parties at Buckingham Palace in July 1914 in an attempt to negotiate a settlement. [66] After four days the conference ended without an agreement. [17] [67] Political developments in Britain and Ireland were overtaken by events in Europe, and the issue of Irish Home Rule was suspended for the duration of the war. [17] [68]

First World War Edit

On 4 August 1914 the King wrote in his diary, "I held a council at 10.45 to declare war with Germany. It is a terrible catastrophe but it is not our fault. . Please to God it may soon be over." [69] From 1914 to 1918, Britain and its allies were at war with the Central Powers, led by the German Empire. The German Kaiser Wilhelm II, who for the British public came to symbolise all the horrors of the war, was the King's first cousin. The King's paternal grandfather was Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha consequently, the King and his children bore the titles Prince and Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke and Duchess of Saxony. Queen Mary, although born in England like her mother, was the daughter of the Duke of Teck, a descendant of the German Dukes of Württemberg. The King had brothers-in-law and cousins who were British subjects but who bore German titles such as Duke and Duchess of Teck, Prince and Princess of Battenberg, and Prince and Princess of Schleswig-Holstein. When H. G. Wells wrote about Britain's "alien and uninspiring court", George replied: "I may be uninspiring, but I'll be damned if I'm alien." [70]

On 17 July 1917, George appeased British nationalist feelings by issuing a royal proclamation that changed the name of the British royal house from the German-sounding House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor. [71] He and all his British relatives relinquished their German titles and styles and adopted British-sounding surnames. George compensated his male relatives by giving them British peerages. His cousin Prince Louis of Battenberg, who earlier in the war had been forced to resign as First Sea Lord through anti-German feeling, became Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, while Queen Mary's brothers became Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge, and Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone. [72]

In letters patent gazetted on 11 December 1917, the King restricted the style of "Royal Highness" and the titular dignity of "Prince (or Princess) of Great Britain and Ireland" to the children of the Sovereign, the children of the sons of the Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest living son of a Prince of Wales. [74] The letters patent also stated that "the titles of Royal Highness, Highness or Serene Highness, and the titular dignity of Prince and Princess shall cease except those titles already granted and remaining unrevoked". George's relatives who fought on the German side, such as Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, and Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, had their British peerages suspended by a 1919 Order in Council under the provisions of the Titles Deprivation Act 1917. Under pressure from his mother, Queen Alexandra, the King also removed the Garter flags of his German relations from St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. [75]

When Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, George's first cousin, was overthrown in the Russian Revolution of 1917, the British government offered political asylum to the Tsar and his family, but worsening conditions for the British people, and fears that revolution might come to the British Isles, led George to think that the presence of the Romanovs would be seen as inappropriate. [76] Despite the later claims of Lord Mountbatten of Burma that Prime Minister David Lloyd George was opposed to the rescue of the Russian imperial family, the letters of Lord Stamfordham suggest that it was George V who opposed the idea against the advice of the government. [77] Advance planning for a rescue was undertaken by MI1, a branch of the British secret service, [78] but because of the strengthening position of the Bolshevik revolutionaries and wider difficulties with the conduct of the war, the plan was never put into operation. [79] The Tsar and his immediate family remained in Russia, where they were killed by the Bolsheviks in 1918. George wrote in his diary: "It was a foul murder. I was devoted to Nicky, who was the kindest of men and thorough gentleman: loved his country and people." [80] The following year, Nicholas's mother, Marie Feodorovna, and other members of the extended Russian imperial family were rescued from Crimea by a British warship. [81]

Two months after the end of the war, the King's youngest son, John, died at the age of 13 after a lifetime of ill health. George was informed of his death by Queen Mary, who wrote, "[John] had been a great anxiety to us for many years . The first break in the family circle is hard to bear but people have been so kind & sympathetic & this has helped us much." [82]

In May 1922, the King toured Belgium and northern France, visiting the First World War cemeteries and memorials being constructed by the Imperial War Graves Commission. The event was described in a poem, The King's Pilgrimage by Rudyard Kipling. [83] The tour, and one short visit to Italy in 1923, were the only times George agreed to leave the United Kingdom on official business after the end of the war. [84]

Postwar reign Edit

Before the First World War, most of Europe was ruled by monarchs related to George, but during and after the war, the monarchies of Austria, Germany, Greece, and Spain, like Russia, fell to revolution and war. In March 1919, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Lisle Strutt was dispatched on the personal authority of the King to escort the former Emperor Charles I of Austria and his family to safety in Switzerland. [85] In 1922, a Royal Navy ship was sent to Greece to rescue his cousins, Prince and Princess Andrew. [86]

Political turmoil in Ireland continued as the Nationalists fought for independence George expressed his horror at government-sanctioned killings and reprisals to Prime Minister Lloyd George. [87] At the opening session of the Parliament of Northern Ireland on 22 June 1921, the King appealed for conciliation in a speech part drafted by General Jan Smuts and approved by Lloyd George. [88] A few weeks later, a truce was agreed. [89] Negotiations between Britain and the Irish secessionists led to the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. [90] By the end of 1922, Ireland was partitioned, the Irish Free State was established, and Lloyd George was out of office. [91]

The King and his advisers were concerned about the rise of socialism and the growing labour movement, which they mistakenly associated with republicanism. The socialists no longer believed in their anti-monarchical slogans and were ready to come to terms with the monarchy if it took the first step. George adopted a more democratic, inclusive stance that crossed class lines and brought the monarchy closer to the public and the working class—a dramatic change for the King, who was most comfortable with naval officers and landed gentry. He cultivated friendly relations with moderate Labour Party politicians and trade union officials. His abandonment of social aloofness conditioned the royal family's behaviour and enhanced its popularity during the economic crises of the 1920s and for over two generations thereafter. [92] [93]

The years between 1922 and 1929 saw frequent changes in government. In 1924, George appointed the first Labour Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, in the absence of a clear majority for any one of the three major parties. George's tactful and understanding reception of the first Labour government (which lasted less than a year) allayed the suspicions of the party's sympathisers. During the General Strike of 1926 the King advised the government of Conservative Stanley Baldwin against taking inflammatory action, [94] and took exception to suggestions that the strikers were "revolutionaries" saying, "Try living on their wages before you judge them." [95]

In 1926, George hosted an Imperial Conference in London at which the Balfour Declaration accepted the growth of the British Dominions into self-governing "autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another". The Statute of Westminster 1931 formalised the Dominions' legislative independence [96] and established that the succession to the throne could not be changed unless all the Parliaments of the Dominions as well as the Parliament at Westminster agreed. [17] The Statute's preamble described the monarch as "the symbol of the free association of the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations", who were "united by a common allegiance". [97]

In the wake of a world financial crisis, the King encouraged the formation of a National Government in 1931 led by MacDonald and Baldwin, [98] [99] and volunteered to reduce the civil list to help balance the budget. [98] He was concerned by the rise to power in Germany of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. [100] In 1934, the King bluntly told the German ambassador Leopold von Hoesch that Germany was now the peril of the world, and that there was bound to be a war within ten years if Germany went on at the present rate he warned the British ambassador in Berlin, Eric Phipps, to be suspicious of the Nazis. [101]

In 1932, George agreed to deliver a Royal Christmas speech on the radio, an event that became annual thereafter. He was not in favour of the innovation originally but was persuaded by the argument that it was what his people wanted. [102] By the Silver Jubilee of his reign in 1935, he had become a well-loved king, saying in response to the crowd's adulation, "I cannot understand it, after all I am only a very ordinary sort of fellow." [103]

George's relationship with his eldest son and heir, Edward, deteriorated in these later years. George was disappointed in Edward's failure to settle down in life and appalled by his many affairs with married women. [17] In contrast, he was fond of his second son, Prince Albert (later George VI), and doted on his eldest granddaughter, Princess Elizabeth he nicknamed her "Lilibet", and she affectionately called him "Grandpa England". [104] In 1935, George said of his son Edward: "After I am dead, the boy will ruin himself within 12 months", and of Albert and Elizabeth: "I pray to God my eldest son will never marry and have children, and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne." [105] [106]

The First World War took a toll on George's health: he was seriously injured on 28 October 1915 when thrown by his horse at a troop review in France, and his heavy smoking exacerbated recurring breathing problems. He suffered from chronic bronchitis. In 1925, on the instruction of his doctors, he was reluctantly sent on a recuperative private cruise in the Mediterranean it was his third trip abroad since the war, and his last. [107] In November 1928, he fell seriously ill with septicaemia, and for the next two years his son Edward took over many of his duties. [108] In 1929, the suggestion of a further rest abroad was rejected by the King "in rather strong language". [109] Instead, he retired for three months to Craigweil House, Aldwick, in the seaside resort of Bognor, Sussex. [110] As a result of his stay, the town acquired the suffix "Regis", which is Latin for "of the King". A myth later grew that his last words, upon being told that he would soon be well enough to revisit the town, were "Bugger Bognor!" [111] [112] [113]

George never fully recovered. In his final year, he was occasionally administered oxygen. [114] The death of his favourite sister, Victoria, in December 1935 depressed him deeply. On the evening of 15 January 1936, the King took to his bedroom at Sandringham House complaining of a cold he remained in the room until his death. [115] He became gradually weaker, drifting in and out of consciousness. Prime Minister Baldwin later said:

each time he became conscious it was some kind inquiry or kind observation of someone, some words of gratitude for kindness shown. But he did say to his secretary when he sent for him: "How is the Empire?" An unusual phrase in that form, and the secretary said: "All is well, sir, with the Empire", and the King gave him a smile and relapsed once more into unconsciousness. [116]

By 20 January, he was close to death. His physicians, led by Lord Dawson of Penn, issued a bulletin with the words "The King's life is moving peacefully towards its close." [117] [118] Dawson's private diary, unearthed after his death and made public in 1986, reveals that the King's last words, a mumbled "God damn you!", [119] were addressed to his nurse, Catherine Black, when she gave him a sedative that night. Dawson, who supported the "gentle growth of euthanasia", [120] admitted in the diary that he hastened the King's death by injecting him, after 11.00 p.m., with two consecutive lethal injections: 3/4 of a grain of morphine followed shortly afterwards by a grain of cocaine. [119] [121] Dawson wrote that he acted to preserve the King's dignity, to prevent further strain on the family, and so that the King's death at 11:55 p.m. could be announced in the morning edition of The Times newspaper rather than "less appropriate . evening journals". [119] [121] Neither Queen Mary, who was intensely religious and might not have sanctioned euthanasia, nor the Prince of Wales was consulted. The royal family did not want the King to endure pain and suffering and did not want his life prolonged artificially but neither did they approve Dawson's actions. [122] British Pathé announced the King's death the following day, in which he was described as "more than a King, a father of a great family". [123]

The German composer Paul Hindemith went to a BBC studio on the morning after the King's death and in six hours wrote Trauermusik (Mourning Music). It was performed that same evening in a live broadcast by the BBC, with Adrian Boult conducting the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the composer as soloist. [124]

At the procession to George's lying in state in Westminster Hall part of the Imperial State Crown fell from on top of the coffin and landed in the gutter as the cortège turned into New Palace Yard. The new king, Edward VIII, saw it fall and wondered whether it was a bad omen for his new reign. [125] [126] As a mark of respect to their father, George's four surviving sons, Edward, Albert, Henry, and George, mounted the guard, known as the Vigil of the Princes, at the catafalque on the night before the funeral. [127] The vigil was not repeated until the death of George's daughter-in-law, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, in 2002. George V was interred at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 28 January 1936. [128] Edward abdicated before the year was out, leaving Albert to ascend the throne as George VI.

George V disliked sitting for portraits [17] and despised modern art he was so displeased by one portrait by Charles Sims that he ordered it to be burned. [129] He did admire sculptor Bertram Mackennal, who created statues of George for display in Madras and Delhi, and William Reid Dick, whose statue of George V stands outside Westminster Abbey, London. [17]

George preferred to stay at home pursuing his hobbies of stamp collecting and game shooting, and he lived a life that later biographers considered dull because of its conventionality. [130] He was not an intellectual on returning from one evening at the opera, he wrote in his journal, "Went to Covent Garden and saw Fidelio and damned dull it was." [131] Nonetheless, he was earnestly devoted to Britain and its Commonwealth. [132] He explained, "it has always been my dream to identify myself with the great idea of Empire." [133] He appeared hard-working and became widely admired by the people of Britain and the Empire, as well as "the Establishment". [134] In the words of historian David Cannadine, King George V and Queen Mary were an "inseparably devoted couple" who upheld "character" and "family values". [135]

George established a standard of conduct for British royalty that reflected the values and virtues of the upper middle-class rather than upper-class lifestyles or vices. [136] Acting within his constitutional bounds, he dealt skilfully with a succession of crises: Ireland, the First World War, and the first socialist minority government in Britain. [17] He was by temperament a traditionalist who never fully appreciated or approved the revolutionary changes underway in British society. [137] Nevertheless, he invariably wielded his influence as a force of neutrality and moderation, seeing his role as mediator rather than final decision-maker. [138]

Titles and styles Edit

  • 3 June 1865 – 24 May 1892: His Royal Highness Prince George of Wales
  • 24 May 1892 – 22 January 1901: His Royal Highness The Duke of York
  • 22 January – 9 November 1901: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall and York
  • 9 November 1901 – 6 May 1910: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
  • 6 May 1910 – 20 January 1936: His Majesty The King

His full style as king was "George V, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India" until the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927, when it changed to "George V, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India". [139]

British honours Edit

  • KG: Royal Knight of the Garter, 4 August 1884[140]
  • KT: Knight of the Thistle, 5 July 1893[140]
  • Sub-Prior of the Venerable Order of St. John, 1893[141]
  • PC: Privy Counsellor, 18 July 1894[140]
      , 20 August 1897[140]
  • Military appointments Edit

    Military ranks and naval appointments Edit

    • September 1877: Cadet, HMS Britannia[146]
    • 8 January 1880: Midshipman, HMS Bacchante and the corvette HMS Canada[140]
    • 3 June 1884: Sub-Lieutenant, Royal Navy [140]
    • 8 October 1885: Lieutenant, HMS Thunderer HMS Dreadnought HMS Alexandra HMS Northumberland[140]
    • July 1889 I/C HMS Torpedo Boat 79 [147]
    • By May 1890 I/C the gunboat HMS Thrush[148]
    • 24 August 1891: Commander, I/C HMS Melampus[140]
    • 2 January 1893: Captain, Royal Navy [140]
    • 1 January 1901: Rear-Admiral, Royal Navy [140][149]
    • 26 June 1903: Vice-Admiral, Royal Navy [140]
    • 1 March 1907: Admiral, Royal Navy [140][150]
    • 1910: Admiral of the Fleet, Royal Navy [140]
    • 1910: Field Marshal, British Army [150]
    • 1919: Chief of the Royal Air Force (title not rank) [151]

    Honorary military appointments Edit

    • 21 June 1887: Personal Aide-de-Camp to the Queen [152]
    • 18 July 1900: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)[153]
    • 1 January 1901: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Marine Forces[154]
    • 25 February 1901: Personal Naval Aide-de-Camp to the King [155]
    • 29 November 1901: Honorary Colonel of the 4th County of London Yeomanry Regiment (King's Colonials)[156]
    • 21 December 1901: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers[157]
    • 12 November 1902: Colonel-in-Chief of the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders[158]
    • April 1917: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Flying Corps (Naval and Military Wings) [159]

    Foreign honours Edit

    • Knight of the Order of the Elephant (Denmark), 11 October 1885[140][160]
    • Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order (Ernestine duchies), 1885[161]
    • Grand Cross of the Sash of the Two Orders (Kingdom of Portugal), 20 May 1886[162]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III (Spain), 20 May 1888[163]
    • Knight with Collar of the Order of the Black Eagle (Prussia), [140][164]8 August 1889[165]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle (Prussia), [164]8 August 1889
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the Württemberg Crown (Württemberg), 1890[166] (Denmark), 9 September 1891[160]
    • Knight of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (Italy), 28 April 1892[167]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the White Falcon (Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach), 1892[168]
    • Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Spain), 17 July 1893[169]
    • Grand Cross of the House Order of the Wendish Crown (Mecklenburg), 1893[170]
    • Knight of the Order of St. Andrew (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Knight of the Order of the White Eagle (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Knight 1st Class of the Order of St. Anna (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Knight 1st Class of the Order of St. Stanislaus (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (Japan), 13 April 1902[173]
    • Knight of the Order of the Rue Crown (Saxony), October 1902[140][174]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen (Austria-Hungary), 1902[175]
    • Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (France), July 1903[176]
    • Knight of the Order of the Seraphim (Sweden), 14 June 1905[140][177]
    • Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Charles III (Spain), 30 May 1906[178]
    • Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Carol I (Romania), 1910[179]
    • Collar of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (Japan), 30 March 1911[180]
    • Knight of the Order of St. Hubert (Bavaria), 1911[164][181]
    • Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog (Denmark), 18 April 1913[182]
    • Grand Commander with Diamonds of the Order of the Dannebrog (Denmark), 9 May 1914[183]
    • Grand Commander of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern (Prussia) [164]
    • Member 1st Class with Diamonds of the Order of Osmanieh (Ottoman Empire) [140]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer (Greece) [144]
    • King Christian IX Jubilee Medal (Denmark) [144]
    • King Christian IX Centenary Medal (Denmark) [160]
    • King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark Golden Wedding Commemorative Medal (Denmark) [144][160]
    • Knight 3rd Class of the Order of St. George (Russian Empire), 14 March 1918[184]
    • Grand Cross of the Sash of the Three Orders (Portuguese Republic), 1919[185]
    • Knight with Collar of the Order of Muhammad Ali (Egypt), 1920[186] , Grade I Class I (Estonia), 17 June 1925[187]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the Colonial Empire (Portuguese Republic), 19 February 1934[188]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of San Marino (San Marino) [189]
    • Knight with Collar of the Order of Solomon (Ethiopia), 1935[190]

    Honorary foreign military appointments Edit

    • 1 February 1901: À la suite of the Imperial German Navy[191]
    • 26 January 1902: Colonel-in-Chief of the Rhenish Cuirassier Regiment "Count Geßler" No. 8 (Prussia) [192]
    • 24 May 1910: Admiral of the Royal Danish Navy[193]
    • Honorary Colonel of the Infantry Regiment "Zamora" No. 8 (Spain) [194][195]
    • 1923: Honorary Admiral of the Swedish Navy[196]

    Honorary degrees and offices Edit

    • 8 June 1893: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society, [140] installed 6 February 1902[197]
    • 1899: Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of the Cape of Good Hope[198]
    • 1901: Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of Sydney[199]
    • 1901: Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of Toronto[200]
    • 1901: Doctor of Civil Law (DCL), Queen's University, Ontario [201]
    • 1902: Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of Wales[202]
    • 1901: Chancellor of the University of Cape Town[203]
    • 1901–1912: Chancellor of the University of the Cape of Good Hope[198]
    • 1902–1910: Chancellor of the University of Wales[202]

    Arms Edit

    As Duke of York, George's arms were the royal arms, with an inescutcheon of the arms of Saxony, all differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing an anchor azure. The anchor was removed from his coat of arms as the Prince of Wales. As King, he bore the royal arms. In 1917, he removed, by warrant, the Saxony inescutcheon from the arms of all male-line descendants of the Prince Consort domiciled in the United Kingdom (although the royal arms themselves had never borne the shield). [204]


    Royal Burial Ground at Frogmore House

    The British royal family has weathered many scandals. In 1936, after 10 months on the throne, Edward VIII abdicated so he could marry an American divorcee, Wallis Simpson. His death in 1972 was mourned in St. George's Chapel, but he was buried on the Frogmore Estate.

    Windsor Castle's weddings, baptisms and burials

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